MOSTLY TRITICEAE REFERENCES

These are referred to in information that I have posted, or are related to my research interests, or ...... Each is labeled with a bookmark that consists of the author's name (concatenated last names if two authors, first author's last name plus "etal" if three or more authors) concatenated with the date of publication, e.g., Arnow1987, Asaydewey1979). Some bookmarks are duplicated, but the references concerned will be close together. I hope it is not too much of a problem. (Feb. 20, 1999: I am starting to add keywords, but these may be partly of my choosing.-Mary Barkworth).

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Aares, E., M. Nurminiemi, and C. Brochmann. 2000. Incongruent phylogeographies in spite of similar morphology, ecology, and distribution: Phippsia algida and P. concinna (Poaceae) in the North Atlantic region. Pl. Syst. Evol. 220:241–261. [Phippsia.]

Adati, S. and I. Shiotani. 1962. The cytotaxonomy of the genus Miscanthus and its phylogenetic status. Bull. Fac. Agric. Mie Univ. 25:1–24. [Miscanthus.]

Ahokas, H. and B. Fredskild. 1991. Coexistence and hybridization of Leymus mollis and L. arenarius in Greenland, and demarcation of the species by endospermal prolamins, leymins. Nordic J. Botany 11;385-392.

Aiken, S.G. and R.A. Buck. 2002. Aquatic leaves and regeneration of last year's straw in the arctic grass Arctophila fulva. Canad. Field-Naturalist 116:81–86. [Arctophila.]

Aiken, S.G. and L.L. Consaul. 1995. Leaf cross sections and phytogeography: A potent combination for identifying members of Festuca subgg. Festuca and Leucopoa (Poaceae), occurring in North America. Amer. J. Bot. 82:1287–1299. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., L.L. Consaul, and M.J. Dallwitz. 1995 on. Grasses of the Canadian arctic archipelago: Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. [Anthoxanthum, Arctagrostis, Deschampsia, ×Dupoa, Phippsia.] http://www.mun.ca/biology/delta/arcticf/poa/index.htm

Aiken, S.G., L.L. Consaul, J.I. Davis, and P.S. Manos. 1993. Systematic inferences from variation in isozyme profiles of arctic and alpine cespitose Festuca (Poaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80:76–82. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., L.L. Consaul, and L.P. Lefkovitch. 1995. Festuca edlundiae (Poaceae), a high arctic, new species compared enzymatically and morphologically with similar Festuca species. Syst. Bot. 20:374–392. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., M.J. Dallwitz, C.L. McJannet, and L.L. Consaul. 1997. Biodiversity among Festuca (Poaceae) in North America: Diagnostic evidence from DELTA and clustering programs, and an INTKEY package for interactive, illustrated identification and information retrieval. Canad. J. Bot. 75:1572–1555. [Festuca, Schedonorus.]

Aiken, S.G., M.J. Dallwitz, C.L. McJannet, and L.L. Consaul. 1997. Fescue Grasses of North America: Interactive Identification and Information Retrieval. [Lolium.] http://delta-intkey.com/festuca/index.htm

Aiken, S.G. and S.J. Darbyshire. 1990. Fescue Grasses of Canada. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1844/E. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 113 pp. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., S.J. Darbyshire, and L.P. Lefkovitch. 1985. Restricted taxonomic value of leaf sections in Canadian narrow–leaved Festuca (Poaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 63:995–1007. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G. and G. Fedak. 1991. Cytotaxonomic observations on North American Festuca (Poaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 70:1940–1944. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G. and S.E. Gardiner. 1991. SDS-PAGE of seed proteins in Festuca (Poaceae): Taxonomic implications. Canad. J. Bot. 69:1425–1432. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., S.E. Gardiner, and M.B. Forde. 1992. Taxonomic implications of SDS-PAGE analysis of seed proteins in North American taxa of Festuca subgenus Festuca (Poaceae). Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 20:615–629. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., P.F. Lee, D. Punter, and J.M. Stewart. 1988. Wild Rice in Canada. Agriculture Canada Publication 1830. NC Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. [Zizania.]

Aiken, S.G. and L.P. Lefkovitch. 1984. The taxonomic value of using epidermal characteristics in the Canadian rough fescue complex (Festuca altaica, F. campestris, F. hallii, "F. scabrella"). Canad. J. Bot. 62:1864–1870. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G. and L.P. Lefkovitch. 1990. Arctagrostis (Poaceae) in North America and Greenland. Canad. J. Bot. 68:2422–2432. [Arctagrostis.]

Aiken, S.G. and L.P. Lefkovitch. 1993. On the separation of two species within Festuca subg. Obtusae (Poaceae). Taxon 42:323–337. [Festuca.]

Aiken, S.G., L.P. Lefkovitch, S.E. Gardiner, and W.W. Mitchell. 1994. Evidence against the existence of varieties in Arctagrostis latifolia ssp. arundinacea (Poaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 72:1039–1050. [Arctagrostis.]

Ainouche, M.L., R.J. Bayer, J.-P. Gourret, A. Defontaine, and M.-T. Misset. 1999. The allotetraploid invasive weed Bromus hordeaceus L. (Poaceae): Genetic diversity, origin and molecular evolution. Folia Geobot. 34:405–419. [Bromus.]

Alderson, J. and W.C. Sharp. 1995. Grass Varieties in the United States. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 296 pp. [Previously published by the Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, as Agricultural Handbook No. 170. revised 1994]. [Cynodon.]

Alexeev, E.B. 1977. To the systematics of Asian fescues (Festuca): I. Subgenera Drymanthele, Subulatae, Schedonorus, Leucopoa. Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 82(3):95–102. [In Russian.] [Festuca.]

Alexeev, E.B. 1980. Festuca L.: Subgenera et sectiones novae ex America bortealii et Mexico. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 17:42–53. [In Russian.] [Festuca.]

Alexeev, E.B. 1982. New and little known fescues (Festuca L.) of North America. Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s. 87(2):109–118. [In Russian.] [Festuca.]

Alexeev, E.B. 1985. Festuca L. (Poaceae) in Alaska et Canada. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 22:5–35. [In Russian.] [Festuca.]

Alice, L.A., G.G. Borneo, and K.W. Hilu. 2000. Systematics of Chloris (Chloridoideae, Poaceae) and related genera: Evidence from nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 87:108–109. [Eustachys.]

Aliscioni, S.S., L.M. Giussani, F.O. Zuloaga, and E.A. Kellogg. 2003. A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): Tests of monophylly and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae. Amer. J. Bot. 90:796–821. [Urochloa.]

Allred, K.W. 1983. Systematics of the Bothriochloa saccharoides complex (Poaceae: Andropogoneae). Syst. Bot. 8:168–184. [Bothriochloa.]

Allred, K.W. 1984. Morphologic variation and classification of the North American Aristida purpurea complex. Brittonia 36:382–395. [Aristida.]

Allred, K.W. 1984, 1985, 1986. Studies in the genus Aristida (Gramineae) of the southeastern United States. Rhodora 86:73–77; 87:137–145, 145–155; 88:367–387. [Aristida.]

Allred, K.W. 1993a. Bromus section Pnigma, in New Mexico, with a key to the bromegrasses of the state. Phytologia 74:319–345. [Bromus; New Mexico, U.S.A.; discriminant analysis.]

Allred, K.W. 1993b. A Field Guide to the Grasses of New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Agricultural Communications. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. 258 pp. [Hackelochloa.]

Allred, K.W. and F.W. Gould. 1978. Geographic variation in the Dichanthelium aciculare complex (Poaceae). Brittonia 30:497–504. [Dichanthelium.]

Anamthawat-Jonsson, K. and S. K. Bodvarsdottir1998.  Meiosis of wheat x lymegrass hybrids.  Chromosome Research 6:339-343.  Keywords: Leymus, Triticum, Genomes, Molecular Cytogenetics, wide hybrids.

Anamthawat-Jonsson, K., B.Th. Bragason, S.K. Bodvarsdottir, and R.M. Koebner. 1999.  Molecular variation in Leymus species and populations.  Molecular Ecology 8:309-315. 

Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36:1–96. [Phalaris.]

Anderson, D.E. 1974. Taxonomy of the genus Chloris (Gramineae). Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 19:1–133. [Chloris, Enteropogon, Eustachys.]

Anderson, H.M. 1991. Melinis P. Beauv. Pp. 210–213 in G.E. Gibbs Russell, L. Watson, M. Koekemoer, L. Smook, N.P. Barker, H.M. Anderson, and M.J. Dallwitz. Grasses of Southern Africa (O.A. Leistner, series ed.). National Botanic Gardens, Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. 437 pp. [Melinis.]

Anderson, J.E. and A.A. Reznicek. 1994. Glyceria maxima (Poaceae) in New England. Rhodora 96:97–101. [Glyceria.]

Anderson, L.C. and D.W. Hall. 1993. Luziola bahiensis (Poaceae): New to Florida. Sida 15:619–622. [Luziola.]

Angiosperm Phylogeny Working Group. 1998. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85:531–553. [Introduction (vol. 25).]

Anton, A.M. 1981. The genus Tragus (Gramineae). Kew Bull. 36:55–61. [Tragus.]

Anton, A.M. and A.T. Hunziker. 1978. El género Munroa (Poaceae): Sinopsis morfológica y taxonómica. Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. 52:229–232. [Munroa.]

Appels, R. and J. Dvorák.   1982.  The wheat ribosomal spacer region: its structure and variation in populations and among species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 63:337-338.

Arnow, L. 1987. Gramineae. Pp. 684-788 in Welsh et al., A Utah Flora, Edition 2. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah.

Arnow, L. 1993. Gramineae. Pp. 775-832 in Welsh et al., A Utah Flora, Edition 2. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah.

Arriaga, M.O. 1983. Anatomía foliar de las especies de Stipa del subgénero Pappostipa (Stipeae-Poaceae) de Argentina. Revista Mus. Argent. Ci. Nat., Bernardino Rivadavia Inst. Nac. Invest. Ci. Nat., Bot. 6:89–141. [Jarava.]

Arriaga, M.O. and M.E. Barkworth. 2006. Amelichloa: A new genus in the Stipeae (Poaceae). Sida 22:145–149. [Achnatherum.]

Arrieta Y.H., P.M. Peterson, and M. de la Cerda Lemus. 2004. Revisíon de Bouteloua Lag. (POACEAE). CIIDIR Unidad Durango and CANABIO, Mexico. [Bouteloua; Post publication]

Arrieta Y.H. and P.M. Peterson. 2007. Muhlenbergia(Poaceae) de Chidhuahua, México. Sida, Botanical Miscellany No. 29. [Muhlenbergia; Post publication].

Asay, K.H. and D.R. Dewey. 1979. Bridging ploidy differences in Crested Wheatgrass with Hexaploid x Diploid hybrids. Crop Science 19:519-523.

Asay, K.H., D.R. Dewey, K.B. Jensen, W.H. Horton, K.W. Maughan, N.J. Chatterton, and J.R. Carlson. 1991. Registration of Pseudoroegneria spicata x Elymus lanceolatus hybrid germplasm SL-1. Crop Science 31:1391.

Asay, K.H., K.B. Jensen, C. Hsiao, and D. R. Dewey. 1992. Probable origin of standard crested wheatgrass, Agropyron desertorum Fisch. ex Link, Schultes. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72: 763-772.

Asins, M.J., J.L. Carretero, A. Del Busto, E.A. Carbonell, and D. Gomez de Barreda. 1999. Morphologic and isozyme variation in barnyard grass (Echinochloa) weed species. Weed Technol. 13:209–215. [Echinochloa.]

Assadi, M. 1994.The genus Elymus L. (Poaceae) in Iran: Biosystematic studies and generic delimitation. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Systematic Botany, Lund, Sweden.   

Assadi, M. 1995. Meiotic configuration and chromosome number in some Iranian species of Elymus L. and Agropyron Gaertner (Poaceae: Triticeae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 117:159-168.

Assadi, M. 1998.  Biosystematic studies of the Elymus hispidus (Poaceae: Triticeae) group in Iran.  Nordic Journal of Botany 18:483-492.  Keywords.  Elymus Thinopyrum morphology.  [E. gentryi a good species; variations in hairiness within E. hispidus do not breed true but recognized as varieties because "some genetically controlled morphological characters are correlated with ecological preferences" .. so "varieties could be of certain value in practical taxonomy".  Which is a reasonable approach.]

Assadi, M. and H. Runemark. 1995. Hybridization, genomic constitution and generic delimitation in Elymus s.l. (Poaceae, Triticeae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 194:189-205.

Assafa, S., C.M. Taliaferro, M.P. Anderson, B.G. de los Reyes, and R.M. Edwards. 1999. Diversity among Cynodon accessions and taxa based on DNA simplification fingerprinting. Genome 42:465–474. [Cynodon.]

Atkins, R.J., M.E. Barkworth, and D.R. Dewey. 1984. A taxonomic study of Leymus ambiguus and L. salinus (Poaceae: Triticeae). Syst. Bot. 9:279-294.

Aung, T. and P.D. Walton.  1990.   Morphology and cytology of the reciprocal hybrids between Elymus trachycaulus and Elymus canadensis.  Genome 33:123-130.  [Obtained different results, both morphologically and cytologically, depending on the direction of the cross.   Hybrid progeny did not do well, most dying in the seedling stage but their is a potential for increasing cold hardiness of E. canadensis and productivity of E. trachycaulus, a matter of interest to those interested in raising cattle].


Auquier, P. 1971. Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa (Hack.) Piper: Morphologie, écologie, taxonomie. Lejeunia, n.s., 56:1–16. [Festuca.]

Avdulov, N.P. 1931. Karyo-systematische Untersuchung der Familie Gramineen. Suppl. 43, Bull. Appl. Bot. Genet. and Pl. Breed. [cited in Myers 1947]

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Baaijens, G.J. and J.F. Veldkamp. 1991. Sporobolus (Gramineae) in Malesia. Blumea 35:393–458. [Sporobolus, Thysanolaena.]

Baden, C. 1991. A taxonomic revision of Psathyrostachys (Poaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 11:3-26.

Baden, C. 1998. Comparison of the Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hystrix coreana and H. patula (Poaceae, Triticeae). Nordic Journal of Botany 18:89-94.

Baden, C., S. Frederiksen, and O. Seberg.1997. A taxonomic revision of the genus Hystrix (Triticeae, Poaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 17:449-467.

Baden, C., I. Linde-Laursen, and D.R. Dewey. 1990. A new Chinese species of Psathyrostachys (Poaceae) with notes on its karyotype. Nordic J. Bot. 9: 449-460.

Baden, C. and R. von Bothmer. 1994. A taxonomic revision of Hordeum sect. Critesion. Nordic J. Bot. 14:117-136.

Baeza P., C.M. 1996. Los géneros Danthonia DC. y Rytidosperma Steud. (Poaceae) en América—Una revisión. Sendtnera 3:11–93. [Danthonia.]

Baird, J.R. and J.W. Thieret. 1985. Notes on Themeda quadrivalvis (Poaceae) in Louisiana. Isleya 2:129–137. [Themeda.]

Baker, H.G. and P.D. Hurd19??   Intrafloral ecology.  Pp. 385-413 in ???

Baldini, R.M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. Webbia 49:265–329. [Phalaris.]

Banerjee, S. P.R. Sibbald, and J. Maze.  1990.  Quantifying the dynamics of order and organization in biological systems.  Journal of Theoretical Biology.   143:91-111.

Barber, J.C., S.S. Aliscioni, L.M. Giussani, J.D. Noll, M.R. Duvall, and E.A. Kellogg. 2002. Combined analyses of three independent datasets to investigate phylogeny of Poaceae subfamily Panicoideae [abstract]. [Paniceae, Panicoideae.] http://www.botany2002.org/

Barker, C.M. and C.A. Stace. 1982. Hybridization in the genera Vulpia and Festuca: The production of artificial F1 plants. Nordic J. Bot. 2:435–444. [Festuca.]

Barker, N.P. 1997. The relatioshops of Amphopogon, Elytrophorus and Cyperochloa (Poaceae) as suggested by rbcL sequence data. Telopea 7:205 –213. {Amphopogon; Elytrophorus; Cyperochloa].

Barker, N.P., H.P. Linder, and E.H. Harley. 1995. Polyphyly of Arundinoideae (Poaceae): Evidence from rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 20:423–435. [Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae.]

Barker, N.P., H.P. Linder, and E.H. Harley. 1998. Sequences of the grass-specific insert in the chloroplast rpoC2 gene elucidate generic relationships of the Arundinoideae (Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 23:327–350. [Arundinoideae.]

Barker, N.P., C.M. Morton, and H.P. Linder. 2000. The Danthonieae: Generic composition and relationships. Pp. 221–229 in Grasses: Systematics and Evolution (S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett, eds.). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 408 pp. [Cortaderia, Danthonioideae.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1977. A taxonomic study of the large-glumed species of Stipa (Gramineae) in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 56:606–625. [Hesperostipa.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1981. Foliar epidermes and the taxonomy of North American Stipeae (Gramineae). Syst. Bot. 6:136–152. [Achnatherum.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1982. Embryological characters and the taxonomy of the Stuipeae (Gramineae). Taxon 31:233–243. [Achnatherum.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1983. Ptilagrostis in North America and its relationship to other Stipeae (Gramineae). Syst. Bot. 8:395–419. [Ptilagrostis.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1990. Nassella (Gramineae: Stipeae): Revised interpretation and nomenclatural changes. Taxon 39:597–614. [Nassella.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1993. Nassella. Pp. 1274–1276 in The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California (J.C. Hickman, ed.). University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 1400 pp. [Nassella.]

Barkworth, M.E. 1993. North American Stipeae (Gramineae): Taxonomic changes and other comments. Phytologia 74:1–25. [Achnatherum, Stipeae.]

Barkworth. M.E. 1995. The Elymus trachycaulus complex in North America: more questions than answers. Pp. 189-198 in R.R.-C. Wang, K.B. Jensen, and C. Jaussi (Editors), Proceedings of the Second International Triticeae Symposium (1994). USDA-Forage and Range Laboratory, Logan, Utah.

Barkworth, M.E. 1997. Taxonomic and nomenclatural comments on the Triticeae in North America. Phytologia 83:302-311.   [Despite the date on the journal, this article was first published in 1998].

Barkworth, M.E. 1997. Elymus stebbinsii: Taxonomy, nomenclature, and distribution. Phytologia 83:345-365.  [Despite the date on the journal, this article was first published in 1998].

Barkworth, M.E. 1997. Taxonomic and nomenclatural comments on the Triticeae in North America. Phytologia 83:302–311. [1997 on title page; printed in 1998.] [Elymus, Thinopyrum.]

Barkworth, M.E.  [2000].  Changing perceptions of the Triticeae.  Pp. 110-120 in S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett (Editors), Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia.

Barkworth, M.E. and R.J. Atkins. 1984. Leymus Hochst. (Gramineae: Triticeae) in North America: taxonomy and distribution. Amer. J. Bot. 71:609-625.

Barkworth, M.E., R.L. Burkhamer, and L.E. Talbert. 1996. Elymus calderi: a new species in the Triticeae (Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 21:349-354.

Barkworth, M.E. 2000. Changing perceptions in the Triticeae. Pp. 1101–20 in Grasses: Systematics and Evolution (S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett, eds.). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 408 pp. [Elymus.]

Barkworth, M.E. 2006. A new hybrid genus and 12 new combinations in North American grasses. Sida 22:495–501. [×Elyleymus.]

Barkworth, M.E., J.J. N. Campbell, and B. Salomon. 2007. Elymus, pp. 288-343 in M.E. Barkworth, K.M.C. Capels, S. Long. L.K. Anderton, and M. Piep (Eds), Flora of North America, vol. 24. Oxford University Press, New York, United States.

Barkworth, M.E. and D.R. Dewey. 1985. Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: Identification and membership. Amer. J. Bot. 72:767-776.

Barkworth, M.E., L.K. Anderton, J. McGrew, and D.E. Giblin. Geography and morphology of the Bromus carinatus (Poaceae: Bromeae) complex. Madroño 53:235–245. [Bromus.]

Barkworth, M.E. and R.J. Atkins. 1984. Leymus Hochst. (Gramineae: Triticeae) in North America: Taxonomy and distribution. Amer. J. Bot. 71:609–625. [Leymus.]

Barkworth, M.E. and R. von Bothmer. 2005. Twenty-one years later: Löve and Dewey's genomic classification proposal. Czech J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 41 (Special Issue):3–9. [Elymus.]

Barkworth, M.E. and K.M. Capels. 2000. The Poaceae in North America: A geographic perspective. Pp. 327–346 in Grasses: Systematics and Evolution (S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett, eds.). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 408 pp. [Introduction, Chloridoideae, Paniceae, Panicoideae.]

Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, S. Long, L.K. Anderton, and M. B. Piep (Eds). 2007 Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. 911pp. [Poaceae]

Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, S. Long, and M. B. Piep (Eds). 2003. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2 . Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. 911pp. [Poaceae]

Barkworth, M.E., D.R. Cutler, J.S. Rollo, S.W.L. Jacobs, and A. Rashid. 2009. Morphological identification of genomic genera in the Triticeae. Breeding Science 59:561–570.

Barkworth, M.E. and D.R. Dewey. 1985. Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: Identification and membership. Amer. J. Bot. 72:767–776. [Triticeae.]

Barkworth, M.E. and J. Everett. 1987. Evolution in the Stipeae: Identification and relationships of its monophyletic taxa. Pp. 251–264 in Grass Systematics and Evolution (T.R. Soderstrom, K.W. Hilu, C.S. Campbell, and M.E. Barkworth, eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 473 pp. [Hesperostipa, Stipa.]

Barkworth, M.E. and J. Linman. 1984. Stipa lemmonii (Vasey) Scribner (Poaceae): A taxonomic and distributional study. Madroño 31:48–56. [Achnatherum.]

Barkworth, M.E. and M.A. Torres. 2001. Distribution and diagnostic characters of Nassella (Poaceae: Stipeae). Taxon 50:439–468. [Nassella.]

Barnes, P.W. 1986. Variation in the big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)–sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii) complex along a local dune/meadow gradient in the Nebraska sandhills. Amer. J. Bot. 73:172–184. [Andropogon.]

Barrett, S.C.H. and D.E. Seaman. 1980. The weed flora of California rice fields. Aquatic Bot. 9:351–376. [Echinochloa.]

Bartlett, E., S.J. Novak, and R.N. Mack. 2002. Genetic variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae): Differentiation in the eastern United States. Amer. J. Bot. 89:602–612. [Bromus.]

Baum, B.R. 1977. Oats: Wild and Cultivated; A Monograph of the Genus Avena L. (Poaceae). Biosystematics Research Institute Monograph No. 14. Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 463 pp. [Avena.]

Baum, B.R. 1979. The genus Elymus in Canada- Bowden;s generic concept and key reappraised and relectotypification of E. canadensis. Can. J. Bot. 42:547-601.

Baum, B.R. 1978. The status of Hordeum brachyantherum in eastern Canada, with related discussions. Canad. J. Bot. 56:107–109. [Hordeum.]

Baum, B.R. and L.G. Bailey. 1990. Key and synopsis of North American Hordeum species. Canad. J. Bot. 68:2433–2442. [Hordeum.]

Baum, B.R., J.R. Estes, & P.K. Gupta. 1987. Assessment of the genomic system of classification in the Triticeae. American Journal of Botany 74:1388–1395.

Baum, B.R., C. Yen, and J.-L. Yang. 1991. Roegneria: its generic limits and justification for its recognition. Can. J. Bot. 69:282-294.

Baum, B.R., J.L. Yang, and C. Yen. 1995. Taxonomic separation of Kengyilia (Poaceae: Triticeae) in relation to nearest related Roegneria, Elymus, and Agropyron, based on some morphological characters. Plant Systematics and Evolution 194: 123-132.

Bay, C. 1992. A phytogeographical study of the vascular plants of northern Greenland—north of 74º northern latitude. Meddel. Grønland, Biosci. 36:1–102. [Phippsia.]

Beal, W.J. 1896. Grasses of North America, Vol. 2. Henry Holt & Company, New York, New York. 706 pp. [Festuca.]

Beetle, A.A. 1943. The North American variations of Distichlis spicata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70:638–650. [Distichlis.]

Beetle, A.A. 1948. The genus Aegopogon Humbold. & Bonpl. Univ. Wyoming Publ. 13:17&ndash23. [Aegopogon.]

Beetle, A.A. 1950. Buffalograss–native of the shortgrass plains. Wyoming Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 293:1–31. [Buchloë.]

Belk, E. 1939. Studies in the anatomy and morphology of the spikelet and flower of the Gramineae. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 183 pp. [Anthoxanthum.]

Bennett, B.A. 2006. Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L., Poaceae) in western North America: Native or introduced? BEN [Botanical Electronic News] #366. [Elymus.] http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/. [Elymus.]

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