17.23   ERAGROSTIS Wolf
Paul M. Peterson

Plants annual or perennial; usually synoecious, sometimes dioecious; cespitose, stoloniferous, or rhizomatous. Culms 2-160 cm, not woody, erect, decumbent, or geniculate, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, simple or branched; internodes solid or hollow. Leaves not strongly distichous; sheaths open, often with tufts of hairs at the apices, hairs 0.3-8 mm; ligules usually membranous and ciliolate or ciliate, cilia sometimes longer than the membranous base, occasionally of hairs or membranous and non-ciliate; blades flat, folded, or involute. Inflorescences terminal, sometimes also axillary, simple panicles, open to contracted or spikelike, terminal panicles usually exceeding the upper leaves; pulvini in the axils of the primary branches glabrous or not; branches not spikelike, not disarticulating. Spikelets 1-27 mm long, 0.5-9 mm wide, laterally compressed, with (1)2-60 florets; disarticulation below the fertile florets, sometimes also below the glumes, acropetal with deciduous glumes and lemmas but persistent paleas, or basipetal with the glumes often persistent and the florets usually falling intact. Glumes usually shorter than the adjacent lemmas, 1(3)-veined, not lobed, apices obtuse to acute, unawned; calluses glabrous or sparsely pubescent; lemmas usually glabrous, obtuse to acute, (1)3(5)-veined, usually keeled, unawned or mucronate; paleas shorter than the lemmas, longitudinally bowed-out by the caryopses, 2-keeled, keels usually ciliate, intercostal region membranous or hyaline; anthers 2-3; ovaries glabrous; styles free to the bases. Cleistogamous spikelets occasionally present, sometimes on the axillary panicles, sometimes on the terminal panicles. Caryopses variously shaped. x = 10. The origin of the name is obscure.

Eragrostis, a genus of approximately 350 species, grows in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. About 110 species are native or adventive in the Western Hemisphere; 25 species are native in the Flora region, 24 are introduced. In most taxa native to the Western Hemisphere, disarticulation is acropetal and the lemmas fall with the caryopses, leaving the paleas attached to the rachilla.

Van den Borre and Watson (2000) and Hilu and Alice (2001) suggested that Eragrostis might not be monophyletic. Ingram and Doyle (2004), based on nuclear and plastid sequence data, conclued that it is, if four segregate genera are included: Acamptocladus, Diandrochloa, Neeragrostis, and Pogonarthria. We are not, at this stage, prepared to emend the treatments of Eragrostis and Pogonarthria to reflect these findings. [Note added by Barkworth, 2004.]

Nathaniel Wolf (1776), the person who first named Eragrostis, made no statement concerning the origin of its name. Clifford (1996) provides three possible derivations: from eros, love, and Agrostis, the Greek name for an indeterminate herb; from the Greek er, early and agrostis, wild, referring to the fact that some species of Eragrostis are early invaders of arable land; or the Greek eri-, a prefix meaning very or much, suggesting that the name means many-flowered Agrostis. Many authors have stated that the first portion of the name is derived from eros, but none have explained the connection between Eragrostis and passionate expressions of love, the kind of love to which eros applies.


SELECTED REFERENCES Clifford, H.T. 1996. Etymological Dictionary of Grasses, Version 1.0 (CD-ROM). Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Harvey, L.H. 1948. Eragrostis in North and Middle America. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 269 pp.; Harvey, L.H. 1975. Eragrostis. Pp. 177-201 in F.W. Gould. The Grasses ofTexas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, U.S.A. 635 pp.; Hilu, K.W. and L.A. Alice. 2001. A phylogeny of Chloridoideae (Poaceae) based on matK sequences. Syst. Bot. 26:386-405; Ingram, A.A. and J.J. Doyle. 2004. Is Eragrostis (Poaceae) monophyletic? Insights from nuclear and plastid sequence data. Syst. Bot. 29:545-552; Koch, S.D. 1974. The Eragrostis pectinacea- pilosa complex in North and Central America. Illinois Biol. Monogr. 48:1-74; Sánchez Vega, I. and S.D. Koch. 1988. Estudio biosistemático de Eragrostis mexicana, E. neomexicana, E. orcuttiana, y E. virescens (Gramineae: Chloridoideae). Bol. Soc. Bot. 48:95-112; Van den Borre, A. and L. Watson. 2000. On the classification of the Chloridoideae: Results from morphological and leaf anatomical data analyses. Pp. 180-183 in S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett (eds.). Grasses: Systematics and Evolution. International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution (3rd:1998). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 408 pp.; Wolf, N.M. 1776. Genera Plantarum. [publisher unknown, Danzig, Germany]. 177 pp.

1
Plants annual, tufted or mat-forming, without innovations (2)
Plants perennial, sometimes rhizomatous, forming innovations at the basal nodes (25)
2
Palea keels prominently ciliate, the cilia 0.2-0.8 mm long (3)
Palea keels smooth or scabrous, the scabridities less than 0.2 mm long (6)
3
Spikelets 1-3.6 mm long, 0.9-2 mm wide, with 4-12 florets; lemmas 0.7-1.3 mm long (4)
Spikelets 5-20 mm long, 1.4-4 mm wide, with 10-42 florets; lemmas 1.3-2.8 mm long (5)
4
Anthers 2; pedicels 0.1-1 mm long, mostly shorter than the spikelets, straight ..... 1. E. ciliaris
Anthers 3; pedicels 1-4(7) mm long, as long as or longer than the spikelets, mostly curved ..... 3. E. amabilis
5
Lemmas and culms without glands; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long, purplish ..... 2. E. cumingii
Lemmas with 1-3 crateriform glands on the keels, similar glands also often present below the cauline nodes; anthers 0.2-0.5 mm long, yellow ..... 18. E. cilianensis
6
Plants mat-forming; panicles 1-3.5 cm long; erect portion of culms (2)5-20 cm, the basal portion prostrate and rooting at the nodes (7)
Plants usually not forming mats; panicles 3-55 cm long; culms (2)6-130 cm tall, not prostrate or rooting at the lower nodes (8)
7
Spikelets bisexual; anthers 2, 0.2-0.3 mm long ..... 4. E. hypnoides
Spikelets and plants unisexual; anthers 3, 1.4-2.2 mm long ..... 5. E. reptans
8
Ligules membranous, neither ciliolate nor ciliate ..... 6. E. japonica
Ligules membranous and ciliolate to ciliate, the cilia often longer than the basal membrane (9)
9
Caryopses with a shallow or deep ventral groove, ovoid to rectangular-prismatic or dorsally compressed, if dorsally compressed, the surface striate or smooth (10)
Caryopses without a ventral groove, usually globose, rarely flattened, pyriform, obovoid, ellipsoid, or rectangular-prismatic, the surface smooth to faintly striate (13)
10
Bases of the caryopses greenish; caryopses dorsally compressed, the distal 2/3 translucent, the surface smooth; leaf sheaths with oblong glands; in the Flora region, known from a single collection at Canton, Maryland ..... 7. E. cylindriflora
Bases of the caryopses reddish-brown or brownish; caryopses laterally compressed or rectangular-prismatic to ovoid, the distal 2/3 opaque, the surface striate; sheaths without oblong glands, sometimes with glandular pits; plants found at many locations in the Flora region (11)
11
Spikelets 4-11 mm long, with 5-15 florets; pedicels somewhat divergent to almost appressed ..... 12. E. mexicana
Spikelets 1.4-5 mm long, with 2-7 florets; pedicels divergent (12)
12
Panicles 4-20 cm long, less than 1/2 the height of the plant; pedicels 1.5-5 mm long; glandular pits often present below the cauline nodes, on the rachises, and on the panicle branches ..... 13. E. frankii
Panicles 10-45(55) cm long, 2/3 or more the height of the plant; pedicels 4-25 mm long; plants without glandular pits ..... 14. E. capillaris
13
Plants with glandular pits or bands somewhere, the location(s) various, including any or all of the following: below the cauline nodes, on the sheaths, blades, rachises, panicle branches, or pedicels, or on the keels of the lemmas and paleas (14)
Plants without glandular pits or bands (19)
14
Panicles 0.5-2 cm wide, contracted; primary panicle branches usually appressed, occasionally diverging up to 30° from the rachises; spikelets light yellowish, occasionally with reddish-purple markings ..... 15. E. lutescens
Panicles 2-18 cm wide, open to somewhat contracted; primary panicle branches diverging 20-110° from the rachises; spikelets plumbeous, greenish, or reddish-purple (15)
15
Spikelets 1.7-5.6 mm long, with 3-6 florets ..... 13. E. frankii
Spikelets (2)3.5-20 mm long, with (3)5-40 florets (16)
16
Spikelets 0.6-1.4 mm wide; pedicels 1-10 mm long, lax, appressed or divergent ..... 16. E. pilosa
Spikelets 1.1-4 mm wide; pedicels 0.2-4 mm long, stiff, straight, usually divergent (17)
17
Lemmas 2-2.8 mm long, with 1-3 crateriform glands along the keels; spikelets 6-20 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, with 10-40 florets; disarticulation below the florets, the rachillas persistent; anthers yellow ..... 18. E. cilianensis
Lemmas 1.4-1.8 mm long, rarely with 1 or 2 crateriform glands along the keels; spikelets 4-7(11) mm long, 1.1-2.2 mm wide, with 7-12(20) florets; disarticulation below the lemmas, both the paleas and rachillas usually persistent; anthers reddish-brown (18)
18
Panicles with glandular regions below the nodes, the glandular tissue forming a ring or band, often shiny or yellowish; anthers 3; blade margins without crateriform glands; pedicels without glandular bands ..... 19. E. barrelieri
Panicles sometimes with areas, but rarely rings, of glandular spots or crateriform pits below the nodes, the glands usually dull greenish-gray to stramineous; anthers 2; blade margins sometimes with crateriform glands; pedicels usually with glandular bands ..... 20. E. minor
19
Spikelets (1.6)2-4 mm wide; florets disarticulating intact from the persistent rachillas ..... 21. E. unioloides
Spikelets 0.6-2.5 mm wide; lemmas disarticulating separately from the paleas, sometimes both the paleas and the rachillas persistent (20)
20
Spikelets with 3-6 florets; plants of the central and northeastern United States and southern Ontario, Canada ..... 13. E. frankii
Spikelets with (3)5-42 florets; plants from throughout the contiguous United States and southern Ontario (21)
21
Lemmas 1.6-3 mm long; caryopses 0.7-1.3 mm long, obovoid, smooth, light brown to white; plants cultivated, occasionally escaping ..... 22. E. tef
Lemmas 1-2.2 mm long; caryopses 0.3-1.1 mm long, subglobose, pyriform, or obovoid to prism-shaped, smooth or faintly striate, brownish; plants native species or established introductions, variously distributed (22)
22
Lemmas with conspicuous, often greenish lateral veins; caryopses 0.3-0.6 mm long, ovoid, subglobose to obovoid (23)
Lemmas with inconspicuous to moderately conspicuous lateral veins, the veins usually not greenish; caryopses 0.5-1.1 mm long, pyriform or obovoid to prism-shaped (24)
23
Spikelets 5-12(18) mm long, with 12-42 florets; primary branches 6-10 per culm; lemmas 1.3-2 mm long; anthers 3 ..... 2. E. cumingii
Spikelets 2-4.6 mm long, with 5-15 florets; primary branches (12)15-20 per culm; lemmas 1-1.3 mm long; anthers 2 ..... 23. E. gangetica
24
Lower glumes 0.5-1.5 mm long, at least 1/2 as long as the lowest lemmas; spikelets 1.2-2.5 mm wide; panicle branches solitary or paired at the lowest 2 nodes; lemmas with moderately conspicuous lateral veins ..... 17. E. pectinacea
Lower glumes 0.3-0.6(0.8) mm long, usually less than 1/2 as long as the lowest lemmas; spikelets 0.6-1.4 mm wide; panicle branches usually whorled at the lowest 2 nodes; lemmas with inconspicuous lateral veins ..... 16. E. pilosa
25
Paleas with a broad lower portion forming a wing or tooth on each side, these often projecting beyond the lemmas (26)
Paleas without a broad lower portion forming a wing or tooth, the bases never projecting beyond the lemmas (27)
26
Spikelets 5.5-16 mm long, 2.7-9 mm wide; lemmas 3-5 mm long, the keels without crateriform glands; pedicels with a narrow band or abscission line just below the apices; anthers 1.4-2.8 mm long ..... 24. E. superba
Spikelets 2-5 mm long, 2-3.5 mm wide; lemmas 1.8-2.3 mm long, the keels with a few crateriform glands; pedicels without a narrow band or abscission line just below the apices; anthers 0.5-0.9 mm long ..... 25. E. echinochloidea
27
Plants rhizomatous; disarticulation always below the florets, the paleas falling with the lemmas and caryopses (28)
Plants not rhizomatous; disarticulation often below the lemmas, the paleas persistent, sometimes below the florets and the paleas falling with the lemmas and caryopses (31)
28
Plants with long, scaly rhizomes, 4-8 mm thick; spikelets 8-14 mm long; lemmas 3.8-4.5 mm long, 3-5-veined, the apices acute to obtuse, usually erose; caryopses 1.6-2 mm long ..... 26. E. obtusiflora
Plants with short, knotty rhizomes less than 4 mm thick, often stout but never elongated; spikelets 2.5-7.6 mm long; lemmas 1-2.5 mm long, 3-veined, the apices acute, usually entire; caryopses 0.5-0.8 mm long (29)
29
Sheaths, blades, and culms not viscid or glandular; caryopses strongly flattened, the ventral surface with 2 prominent ridges separated by a groove; anthers 0.3-0.5 mm long; lemmas leathery ..... 27. E. spectabilis
Sheaths, blades, and/or culms often viscid, sometimes glandular; caryopses terete, the ventral surfaces without 2 ridges separated by a groove; anthers 0.2-0.4 mm long; lemmas membranous (30)
30
Pedicels 0.2-1.2 mm long, appressed; lemmas 1.5-2.2 mm long; caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm long ..... 28. E. curtipedicellata
Pedicels (1)1.5-12 mm long, divergent or appressed; lemmas 1.1-1.4 mm long; caryopses 0.5-0.6 mm long ..... 29. E. silveana
31
Panicles 0.3-0.6 cm wide, spicate, dense; spikelets with 2-3 florets ..... 30. E. spicata
Panicles 1-45 cm wide, ovate to obovate or elliptic, open to somewhat condensed and glomerate; spikelets with 1-45 florets (32)
32
Caryopses with shallowly to deeply grooved adaxial surfaces, rectangular-prismatic to ellipsoid, ovoid, or obovoid in overall shape (33)
Caryopses not grooved on the adaxial surfaces, ellipsoid, subellipsoid, ovoid, obovoid, globose, to pyriform in overall shape (46)
33
Caryopses strongly dorsally compressed, translucent, mostly light brown, bases sometimes greenish (34)
Caryopses laterally compressed, terete, or slightly dorsally compressed, usually opaque, usually reddish-brown (36)
34
Lemmas 1.8-3 mm long; panicles 16-35(40) cm long, (4)8-24 cm wide; blades 12-50(65) cm long; caryopses 1-1.7 mm long; ligules 0.6-1.3 mm long ..... 9. E. curvula
Lemmas 1.4-1.7 long; panicles 6-18 cm long, 2-8 cm wide; blades 2-12 cm long; caryopses 0.4-0.8 mm long; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm long (35)
35
Plants without woolly hairs at the base; glumes unequal; lateral lemma veins not green, inconspicuous throughout; spikelets 0.8-1.2 mm; naturalized in the southwestern United States ..... 10. E. lehmanniana
Plants with conspicuous, woolly hairs at the base; glumes subequal; lateral lemma veins green, conspicuous basally, obscure near the lemma apices; spikelets 1.3-2 mm wide; in the Flora region, known only from waste areas near a woolen mill in South Carolina ..... 11. E. setifolia
36
Lateral veins of the lemmas conspicuous, often greenish, the lemmas strongly keeled (37)
Lateral veins of the lemmas inconspicuous, the lemmas sometimes only weakly keeled (40)
37
Panicles 2-8 cm wide, contracted to somewhat open, narrowly oblong to narrowly lanceolate; primary branches appressed or diverging up to 30° from the rachises; lemmas with punctate glands along the keels; pedicels 1-7 mm long, appressed; plants native to Africa, in the Flora region, known only from waste areas near sheep and cattle lots in South Carolina and Alabama ..... 31. E. plana
Panicles 4-30 cm wide, open, ovate to oblong; primary branches diverging 10-90° from the rachises; lemmas without punctate glands on the keels; pedicels 0.4-22 mm long, usually diverging, occasionally appressed; plants native to the southern United States (38)
38
Pedicels with a glandular band; culms with a glandular band below the nodes; anthers 0.3-0.5 mm long; restricted to southern Texas ..... 32. E. swallenii
Pedicels and culms without glandular bands; anthers 0.6-1.6 mm long; often found outside southern Texas (39)
39
Glumes 1.8-4 mm long, the upper glumes generally equaling or exceeding the lower lemmas; spikelets 1.5-3.6 mm wide, greenish-yellow with a reddish-purple tinge; lemmas 2.2-3.5 mm long; caryopses 0.8-1.3 mm long ..... 33. E. trichodes
Glumes 1.1-2.2 mm long, the upper glumes exceeded by the lower lemmas; spikelets 1-2 mm wide, plumbeous; lemmas 2-2.6 mm long; caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm long ..... 34. E. palmeri
40
Lemmas 1.2-1.8 mm long; culms 30-70 cm tall (41)
Lemmas 1.6-3 mm long; culms (30)40-110(120) cm tall (43)
41
Culms with a glandular ring below the nodes; bases of primary panicle branches with a glandular band; panicles 2-7 cm wide; pedicels glandular; known, in the Flora region, only from a few collections at Canton, Maryland ..... 8. E. trichophora
Culms without a glandular ring below the nodes; bases of primary panicle branches without a glandular band; pedicels not glandular at the base; panicles 5-27 cm wide; plants known from many parts of the southern United States (42)
42
Spikelets 1.1-1.6 mm wide, uniformly plumbeous; sheaths sometimes densely pilose dorsally and on the collars; distal margins of the lemmas not hyaline ..... 35. E. polytricha
Spikelets 0.5-1(1.3) mm wide, plumbeous to reddish-purple; sheaths usually glabrous dorsally and on the collars; distal margins of the lemmas hyaline ..... 36. E. lugens
43
Spikelets greenish with a purplish tinge, with 2-6 florets; blades 25-60 cm long, 3-11 mm wide, flat to loosely involute; sheaths densely hirsute with papillose-based hairs on the collar, back, and base ..... 37. E. hirsuta
Spikelets olivaceous to plumbeous, with (3)5-12 florets; blades (4)10-35 cm long, 1-3.8 mm wide, involute or flat; sheaths never with papillose-based hairs, sometimes villous over the back (44)
44
Lemmas 1.6-2.2 mm long; anthers 0.5-0.8 mm long, purplish ..... 38. E. intermedia
Lemmas 2-3 mm long; anthers 0.6-1.7 mm long, purplish to yellowish (45)
45
Caryopses 0.8-1.6 mm long; lemmas 2.4-3 mm long ..... 39. E. erosa
Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm long; lemmas 2-2.6 mm long ..... 34. E. palmeri
46
Anthers 2 (47)
Anthers 3 (53)
47
Panicles 15-45 cm wide, open, diffuse, broadly ovate to obovate; primary branches lax; pedicels 0.5-35(50) mm long, the lower pedicels longer or shorter than the spikelets (48)
Panicles (1)2-17 cm wide, contracted to open, narrowly ovate to oblong; primary branches stiff; pedicels absent or 0.3-6 mm long, always shorter than the spikelets (49)
48
Spikelets with appressed pedicels; only the terminal pedicels of each branch longer than the spikelets; disarticulation usually in the rachilla beneath the florets ..... 40. E. refracta
Spikelets with divergent pedicels; all pedicels usually longer than the spikelets; disarticulation below the lemmas, the paleas persistent ..... 41. E. elliottii
49
Spikelets 2.4-5 mm wide; glumes 1.7-4 mm long; lemmas 2-6 mm long, the apices usually acuminate or attenuate ..... 42. E. secundiflora
Spikelets 1-2.4 mm wide; glumes 1-2.2 mm long; lemmas 1.1-2.5 mm long, the apices usually acute, occasionally acuminate (50)
50
Spikelets 0.7-1.4 mm wide; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm long; caryopses flattened ventrally ..... 43. E. prolifera
Spikelets 1.3-2.4 mm wide; anthers (0.2)0.3-0.7 mm long; caryopses rounded, not flattened ventrally (51)
51
Terminal panicles 1-3.5 cm wide, contracted, condensed into glomerate lobes; primary branches 0.8-3 cm long ..... 44. E. elongata
Terminal panicles (1)2-17 cm wide, open to contracted; primary branches 1-15 cm long (52)
52
Plants without axillary panicles; terminal panicles 15-45 cm long; blades (8)12-40 cm long, 2-5 mm wide, flat to involute; caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm long, striate, obovoid to ellipsoid ..... 45. E. bahiensis
Plants usually with axillary panicles, these contracted and partially to completely enclosed by the subtending sheaths; terminal panicles 5-15 cm long; blades 4-8(18) cm long, 1-2 mm wide, usually involute; caryopses 0.5-0.6 mm long, smooth, globose ..... 46. E. scaligera
53
Primary panicle branches not rebranched; proximal spikelets on each branch sessile or subsessile, the pedicels shorter than 0.4 mm ..... 47. E. sessilispica
Primary panicle branches usually with secondary branches; proximal spikelets on each branch usually pedicellate, the pedicels longer than 0.4 mm (54)
54
Spikelets 1.3-2 mm long, with 1-3 florets; lemmas 0.8-1.2 mm long ..... 48. E. airoides
Spikelets 2-19 mm long, with 2-22 florets; lemmas 1.2-2.4 mm long (55)
55
Spikelets 2-4.5(5) mm long (56)
Spikelets 4-19 mm long (57)
56
Blades 25-60 cm long, 3-11 mm wide; lemmas 1.6-2.4 mm long; spikelets 1-1.7 mm wide; sheaths densely hirsute, with papillose-based hairs on the base, back, and collar ..... 37. E. hirsuta
Blades 4-22 cm long, 1-3.5 mm wide; lemmas 1.2-1.8 mm long; spikelets 0.5-1.3 mm wide; sheaths sometimes hirsute, at least partially, but the hairs never papillose-based ..... 36. E. lugens
57
Spikelets with 10-22 florets; caryopses terete to laterally compressed, opaque, uniformly reddish brown ..... 49. E. atrovirens
Spikelets with 3-12(14) florets; caryopses dorsally compressed, translucent, greenish over the embryo (58)
58
Lemmas 1.8-3 mm long; panicles 16-35(40) cm long, (4)8-24 cm wide; blades 12-50(65) cm long; caryopses 1-1.7 mm long; ligules 0.6-1.3 mm long ..... 9. E. curvula
Lemmas 1.4-1.7 long; panicles 6-18 cm long, 2-8 cm wide; blades 2-12 cm long; caryopses 0.4-0.8 mm long; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm long (59)
59
Plants without woolly hairs on the base; glumes unequal; lateral lemma veins not green, inconspicuous throughout; spikelets 0.8-1.2 mm; naturalized in the southwestern United States ..... 10. E. lehmanniana
Plants with conspicuous, woolly hairs on the base; glumes subequal; lateral lemma veins green, conspicuous basally, obscure near the lemma apices; spikelets 1.3-2 mm wide; in the Flora region, known only from waste areas near a woolen mill in South Carolina ..... 11. E. setifolia


1.   Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R. Br.
Gophertail Lovegrass

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations, without glands. Culms (3)9-75 cm, erect or geniculate in the lower portion, not rooting at the lower nodes, glabrous. Sheaths hairy on the margins and at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm; blades 1.8-12(15) cm long, 2-5 mm wide, usually flat, occasionally involute, glabrous or ciliate basally. Panicles 1.7-15 cm long, 0.2-5 cm wide, cylindrical, contracted or open, branches usually forming glomerate lobes, sometimes more open, often interrupted in the lower portion; primary branches 0.4-4 cm, appressed or diverging to 50° from the rachises; pulvini usually glabrous, occasionally sparsely pilose; pedicels 0.1-1 mm, erect, shorter than the spikelets, glabrous. Spikelets 1.8-3.2 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, elliptical-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, yellowish-brown, sometimes with a purple tinge, with 6-11 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes ovate to lanceolate, keels scabridulous, veins commonly green, apices acute; lower glumes 0.7-1.2 mm; upper glumes 1-1.6 mm; lemmas 0.8-1.3 mm, elliptical-ovate to lanceolate, membranous, keels scabridulous, lateral veins evident, apices obtuse to acute; paleas 0.8-1.3 mm, membranous, keels prominently ciliate, cilia 0.2-0.8 mm, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 2, 0.1-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.4-0.5 mm, ovoid, reddish-brown. 2n = 20, 40.

Eragrostis ciliaris is native to the paleotropics. It is naturalized in parts of the United States, growing along roadsides, on waste sites, in xerothermic vegetation, and sometimes in saline habitats, at 0-200 m. It may be more widespread than indicated.

1
Panicles 0.2-1.5 cm wide, contracted, the branches mostly appressed to the rachises, congested, forming glomerate lobes; spikelets densely packed ..... var. ciliaris
Panicles 1.5-5 cm wide, open, the branches spreading 20-50° from the rachises; spikelets widely separated from each other ..... var. laxa


Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R. Br. var. ciliaris

Panicles 0.2-1.5 cm wide, contracted; branches mostly appressed to the rachises, forming glomerate lobes. Spikelets densely packed.

Eragrostis ciliaris var. ciliaris is more common than E. ciliaris var. laxa in the Flora region.


Eragrostis ciliaris var. laxa Kuntze

Panicles 1.5-5 cm wide, open; branches spreading 20-50° from the rachises. Spikelets widely separated from each other.

Eragrostis ciliaris var. laxa grows in five counties of Florida, the Caribbean Islands, and the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.


2.   Eragrostis cumingii Steud.
Cuming's Lovegrass

Plants annual; cespitose, without innovations, without glands. Culms 10-40(50) cm, erect to prostrate, sometimes geniculate, branching profusely from near the base, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths sparsely hairy at the apices, hairs to 2.5 mm; ligules 0.1-0.2 mm; blades 3-10(12) cm long, 1-3 mm wide, flat to involute, sparsely pilose on the basal 1/2, scabridulous distally. Panicles 5-20 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, narrowly ovate, open, with 6-10 primary branches; primary branches 1-6 cm, widely spaced, axes trigonous, diverging to 90° from the rachises, densely spikelet-bearing to the base; pulvini sparsely pilose; pedicels 0.4-1(2) mm, stout, straight, flattened. Spikelets 5-12(18) mm long, 1.4-2.4 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, chartaceous, stramineous to greenish with reddish-purple tinges, with 12-42 florets; disarticulation acropetal. Glumes subequal, 1.2-1.9 mm, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes narrower than the upper glumes; lemmas 1.3-2 mm, lanceolate to ovate, chartaceous, lateral veins conspicuous, greenish, apices acute; paleas 1-1.6 mm, hyaline, keels ciliate, cilia 0.1-0.2 mm, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 3, 0.1-0.2 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.4-0.6 mm, ovoid, laterally compressed, finely striate, light brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis cumingii is native to southeast Asia and Australia. Within the Flora region, it has become established in Florida, growing in waste places and along roadsides in sandy or gravelly soils, at 0-150 m.


3.   Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn.
Japanese Lovegrass

Plants annual; cespitose, without innovations, without glands. Culms 5-40 cm, erect, glabrous, occasionally with oblong glandular areas below the nodes. Sheaths hairy on the distal margins and at the apices, hairs to 4 mm, stiff; ligules 0.2-0.3 mm; blades 2-8 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces smooth, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, bases occasionally with papillose-based hairs. Panicles 4-15 cm long, 1-7 cm wide, cylindrical to narrowly ovate, open, rachises sometimes glandular below the nodes; primary branches 0.5-4 cm, diverging 20-100° from the rachises; pulvini sparsely pilose; pedicels 1-4(7) mm, as long as or longer than the spikelets, mostly pendent, lax, terete. Spikelets (1)1.5-2.5 mm long, 0.9-1.4 mm wide, ovate to oblong, reddish-purple to greenish, with 4-8 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes ovate, hyaline, keeled, veins commonly green; lower glumes 0.4-0.7 mm; upper glumes 0.7-1 mm; lemmas 0.7-1.1 mm, ovate to broadly oblong, membranous, lateral veins usually greenish, apices truncate to obtuse; paleas 0.6-1.1 mm, hyaline, keels ciliate, cilia 0.3-0.5 mm, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, about 0.2 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.3-0.5 mm, ellipsoid, translucent, light brown. 2n = 20.

Eragrostis amabilis is native to the Eastern Hemisphere. It is now naturalized in the southeastern United States, growing in open areas such as cultivated fields, forest margins, and roadsides at 0-200 m.


4.   Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
Teel Lovegrass, Éragrostide Hypnoïde

Plants annual; stoloniferous, mat-forming, without innovations, without glands. Culms decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes, erect portion (2)5-12(20) cm, often branched, glabrous or hairy on the lower internodes. Sheaths pilose on the margins, collars, and at the apices, hairs 0.1-0.6 mm; ligules 0.3-0.6 mm; blades 0.5-2.5 cm long, 1-2 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces appressed pubescent, hairs about 0.2 mm. Panicles terminal and axillary, 1-3.5 cm long, 0.7-2.5 cm wide, ovate, open to somewhat congested; primary branches 0.1-0.5 cm, appressed to strongly divergent, glabrous; pulvini sparsely pilose or glabrous; pedicels 0.2-1 mm, ciliate. Spikelets 4-13 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, linear-oblong, often arcuate, loosely imbricate, greenish-yellow to purplish, with 12-35 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 0.4-0.7 mm; upper glumes 0.8-1.2 mm; lemmas 1.4-2 mm, ovate, strongly 3-veined, veins greenish, apices acuminate; paleas 0.7-1.2 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 2, 0.2-0.3 mm, brownish. Caryopses 0.3-0.5 mm, ellipsoid, somewhat translucent, light brown. 2n = 20.

Eragrostis hypnoides grows along muddy or sandy shores of lakes and rivers and in moist, disturbed sites, at 10-1600 m. It is native to the Americas, extending from southern Canada to Argentina.


5.   Eragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nees
Creeping Lovegrass

Plants annual; unisexual, pistillate and staminate plants morphologically similar; mat-forming, without innovations, without glands. Culms rooting at the lower nodes, erect portion 5-20 cm, glabrous, pilose, or villous, particularly below the panicles. Sheaths mostly scabrous, margins sometimes with 0.1-0.4 mm hairs; ligules 0.1-0.6 mm; blades 1-4 cm long, 1-4.5 mm wide, flat or conduplicate, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces appressed pubescent, hairs about 0.2 mm. Panicles terminal, 1-3 cm long, 0.6-2.5 cm wide, ovate, contracted, exserted or partially included in the upper leaf sheaths, rachises somewhat viscid, pilose or glabrous; primary branches 0.5-1.5 cm, appressed to the rachises, each terminating in a spikelet; pulvini sparsely pilose or glabrous; pedicels 0.2-2 mm, shorter than the spikelets, glabrous or hairy. Spikelets 5-26 mm long, 1.5-4.7 mm wide, linear to ovate, greenish to stramineous, with 16-60 florets; disarticulation in the pistillate florets basipetal, the lemmas falling separately, staminate spikelets not or tardily disarticulating. Glumes unequal, ovate, hyaline, glabrous or sparsely hirsute; lower glumes 0.8-1.6 mm, 1-veined; upper glumes 1.5-2.5 mm, 1-3-veined; lemmas (1.5)1.8-4 mm, ovate, hyaline to membranous, lateral veins conspicuous, greenish, apices acute to acuminate, sometimes prolonged into a mucro, mucros to 0.4 mm; paleas 0.7-3.8 mm, hyaline, about 1/2 as long as the lemmas in pistillate florets, as long as the lemmas in staminate florets, keels scabridulous; anthers 3, 1.4-2.2 mm, reddish to yellowish. Caryopses 0.4-0.6 mm, ellipsoid, somewhat laterally compressed, smooth, light reddish-brown. 2n = 60.

Eragrostis reptans grows in wet sand, gravel, and clay soils along rivers and lake margins from the United States to northern Mexico, at 0-400 m, frequently with Cynodon dactylon and Heliotropium. It flowers from April through November.


6.   Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.
Pond Lovegrass

Plants annual; cespitose, without innovations, without glands. Culms 25-100(115) cm, erect or geniculate, lower portion glabrous and shiny. Sheaths glabrous at the apices and on the upper margins; ligules 0.4-0.6 mm, scarious, glabrous; blades (4)15-20(25) cm long, 1.5-6 mm wide, flat, sometimes auriculate, abaxial surfaces glabrous, smooth, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, Panicles 15-40 cm long, 0.8-5 cm wide, lanceoloid, contracted, interrupted near the base; primary branches 2-10 cm, appressed or diverging to 30° from the rachises, spikelet-bearing to near the base; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.5-1.5 mm, sinuous. Spikelets 2.2-3.8 mm long, 0.8-1.3 mm wide, oblong to narrowly lanceolate, yellowish-brown to whitish and hyaline, with 4-12 florets; disarticulation basipetal, rachillas and glumes persistent. Glumes subequal, 0.6-1 mm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, hyaline; upper glumes without a midvein; lemmas 0.9-1.2 mm, ovate, hyaline, lateral veins conspicuous basally, greenish, apices acute; paleas 0.6-0.8 mm, hyaline, keels smooth basally, scabridulous distally, apices acute, often bifid; anthers 2, 0.1-0.2 mm, whitish to light brown. Caryopses 0.3-0.4 mm, obovoid, smooth, reddish-brown. 2n = 20.

Eragrostis japonica is native to the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere; it is now established in moist areas along rivers and streams in the southern portion of the contiguous United States, usually in sandy soils, at 0-200 m.


7.   Eragrostis cylindriflora Hochst.

Plants annual; cespitose, without innovations. Culms 20-70 cm, erect or decumbent, with a ring of glands below the nodes, glabrous. Sheaths often with oblong glands below the collar, usually glabrous, rarely pilose, hairs to 1.5 mm, papillose-based, sometimes both glandular and with papillose-based hairs; ligules 0.4-0.6 mm; blades 3-15 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous or hairy, hairs to 3 mm, papillose-based. Panicles 5-22 cm long, 2.6-10 cm wide, open, oblong, usually diffuse; primary branches 2-9 cm, appressed or diverging to 80° from the rachises, lowest branches whorled, naked below; pulvini glabrous or scattered pilose; pedicels 0.8-7 mm, divergent. Spikelets 2-7 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, oblong, plumbeous to greenish-gray, with 3-14 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, 1.4-2 mm, narrowly ovate, hyaline; lemmas 1.4-1.7 mm, ovate, membranous, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices obtuse to acute; paleas 1.2-1.6 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.7-1 mm, yellowish. Caryopses 0.5-1.1 mm, ellipsoid to obovoid, dorsally compressed, with a shallow, broad adaxial groove, smooth, mostly translucent, mostly light brown, bases greenish. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis cylindriflora is native to Africa. It is not established in the Flora region, but has been collected from a disturbed site in Canton, Maryland.


8.   Eragrostis trichophora Coss. & Durieu

Plants perennial; cespitose, stoloniferous, forming innovations near the base. Culms 30-70 cm, erect, geniculate, or prostrate, often rooting at the lower nodes, glabrous, with a ring of glands below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous or with scattered papillose-based hairs over most of the surface, apices pilose, hairs 1-4 mm, a ring of oblong glands sometimes present below the collar; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm; blades 1.4-10 cm long, 2-3 mm wide, flat to involute, sparsely hairy with papillose-based hairs, abaxial surfaces often with glandular dots. Panicles 5-20 cm long, 2-7 cm wide, narrowly ovate, open; primary branches 2-7 cm, diverging 10-70° from the rachises, lowest branches whorled, naked proximally, bases with a glandular band; pulvini hairy; pedicels 0.3-3.3 mm, glandular. Spikelets 4-5.4 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, plumbeous to greenish-gray, with 3-5 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, 1.4-1.8 mm, ovate-lanceolate, membranous; lemmas 1.5-1.8 mm, ovate, membranous, often hyaline, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices obtuse to acute; paleas 1.3-1.7 mm, hyaline, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.7-1 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, ovoid, terete to dorsally compressed, shallowly grooved adaxially, translucent, mostly whitish to light brown, bases often greenish. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis trichophora is native to Africa, where it often grows in moist, disturbed or overgrazed sites. It has been collected from disturbed sites at Canton, Maryland.


9.   Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees
Weeping Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, forming innovations at the basal nodes, without glands. Culms (45)60-150 cm, erect, glabrous or glandular. Sheaths with scattered hairs, hairs to 9 mm; ligules 0.6-1.3 mm; blades 12-50(65) cm long, 1-3 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, sometimes scabridulous, adaxial surfaces with scattered hairs basally, hairs to 7 mm. Panicles 16-35(40) cm long, (4)8-24 cm wide, ovate to oblong, open; primary branches 3-14 cm, diverging 10-80° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous or not; pedicels 0.5-5 mm, appressed, flexible. Spikelets 4-8.2(10) mm long, 1.2-2 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, plumbeous to yellowish, with 3-10 florets; disarticulation irregular to acropetal, proximal rachilla internodes persistent. Glumes lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 1.2-2.6 mm; upper glumes 2-3 mm; lemmas 1.8-3 mm, ovate, membranous, lateral veins conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.8-3 mm, hyaline to membranous, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.6-1.2 mm, reddish-brown. Caryopses 1-1.7 mm, ellipsoid to obovoid, dorsally compressed, adaxial surfaces with a shallow, broad groove or ungrooved, smooth, mostly translucent, light brown, bases often greenish. 2n = 40, 50.

Eragrostis curvula is native to southern Africa. It is often used for reclamation because it provides good ground cover but, once introduced, it easily escapes. In the Flora region, it grows on rocky slopes, at the margins of woods, along roadsides, and in waste ground, at 20-2400 m, usually in pine-oak woodlands, and yellow pine and mixed hardwood forests.


10.   Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees
Lehmann's Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, forming innovations at the basal nodes, without glands. Culms (20)40-80 cm, erect, commonly geniculate, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, glabrous, lower portions sometimes scabridulous. Sheaths sometimes shortly silky pilose basally, hairs less than 2 mm, apices sparsely hairy, hairs to 3 mm; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades 2-12 cm long, 1-3 mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous, abaxial surfaces sometimes scabridulous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous. Panicles 7-18 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, oblong, open; primary branches 1-8 cm, appressed or diverging to 40° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.5-4 mm, diverging or appressed, flexible. Spikelets 5-12(14) mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, plumbeous to stramineous, with 4-12(14) florets; disarticulation irregular to basipetal, paleas usually persistent. Glumes oblong to lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes 1-1.5 mm; upper glumes 1.3-2 mm; lemmas 1.5-1.7 mm, ovate, membranous, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute to obtuse; paleas 1.4-1.7 mm, obtuse; anthers 3, 0.6-0.9 mm, yellowish. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, ellipsoid to obovoid, dorsally compressed, sometimes with a shallow adaxial groove, smooth, translucent, mostly light brown, embryo region dark brown with a greenish ring. 2n = 40, 60.

Eragrostis lehmanniana is native to southern Africa, where it grows in sandy, savannah habitats. It was introduced for erosion control in the southern United States, where it often displaces native species. In the Flora region, it grows in sandy flats, along roadsides, on calcareous slopes, and in disturbed areas, at 200-1830 m. It is commonly found in association with Larrea tridentata, Opuntia, Quercus, Juniperus, and Bouteloua gracilis.


11.   Eragrostis setifolia Nees
Neverfail Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and thickened or knotty plant bases; plant bases with woolly hairs, hairs coarse, to 2 cm. Culms 12-60 cm, erect, glabrous or hairy near the base, often shiny below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous, summits shortly pilose, hairs to 0.5 mm; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades 3-11 cm long, 0.7-2 mm wide, involute or flat, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous adaxially. Panicles 6-11 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, narrowly ovate, loosely contracted; primary branches 1-3 cm, compact, appressed or diverging to 30º from the rachises, sometimes naked near the base; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.2-3 mm, diverging, scabridulous. Spikelets 3-6(15) mm long, 1.3-2 mm wide, linear lanceolate, stramineous, with 9-30 florets; disarticulation irregular or basipetal, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, 1-1.3 mm, ovate, membranous, apices obtuse to acute; lemmas 1.4-1.6 mm, ovate, membranous, glabrous, lateral veins conspicuous, green, sometimes obscure towards the apices, apices obtuse; paleas 1.4-1.6 mm, hyaline, apices truncate, ciliolate; anthers 3, 0.5-0.8 mm, yellowish. Caryopses 0.4-0.5 mm, oblong-ellipsoid, strongly dorsally compressed, usually with a shallow dorsal groove, smooth to finely striate, mostly light brown, bases often greenish. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis setifolia is an Australian species that was collected around the Santee Wool Combing Mill, Jamestown, Berkeley County, South Carolina, in 1958. It is not known to have spread from that location. There is no illustration of the species because it was a late addition to the treatment. For digital images, see http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/.


12.   Eragrostis mexicana (Hornem.) Link
Mexican Lovegrass

Plants annual; cespitose, without innovations. Culms 10-130 cm, erect, sometimes geniculate, glabrous, sometimes with a ring of glandular depressions below the nodes. Sheaths sometimes with glandular pits, pilose near the apices and on the collars, hairs to 4 mm, papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades 5-25 cm long, 2-7(9) mm wide, flat, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, occasionally pubescent near the base. Panicles (5)10-40 cm long, (2)4-18 cm wide, ovate, rachises angled and channeled; primary branches 3-12(15) cm, solitary to whorled, appressed or diverging to 80° from the rachises; secondary branches somewhat appressed; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 1-6(7) mm, almost appressed to narrowly divergent, stiff. Spikelets (4)5-10(11) mm long, 0.7-2.4 mm wide, ovate to linear-lanceolate, gray-green to purplish, with 5-11(15) florets; disarticulation acropetal. Glumes subequal, 0.7-2(2.3) mm, ovate to lanceolate, membranous; lemmas 1.2-2.4 mm, ovate, membranous, glabrous or with a few hairs, gray-green, lateral veins evident, often greenish, apices acute; paleas 1-2.2 mm, hyaline, keels scabrous, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 0.2-0.5 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.5-0.8(1) mm, ovoid to rectangular-prismatic, laterally compressed, shallowly to deeply grooved on the adaxial surface, striate, reddish-brown, distal 2/3 opaque. 2n = 60.

Eragrostis mexicana grows along roadsides, near cultivated fields, and in disturbed open areas, at 100-3000 m. It is native to the Americas, its native range extending from the southwestern United States through Mexico, Central and northern South America, to Argentina. Within the Flora region, it has been introduced beyond its native range, often becoming an established part of the flora.

1
Spikelets ovate to oblong in outline, 1.5-2.4 mm wide; lower glumes 1.2-2.3 mm long; sum of the spikelet width and lower glume length 2.7-4.7 mm; culms and sheaths sometimes with glandular depressions ..... subsp. mexicana
Spikelets linear to linear-lanceolate, 0.7-1.4 wide; lower glumes 0.7-1.7 mm long; sum of the spikelet width and lower glume length 1.5-3.1 mm; culms and sheaths without glandular depressions ..... subsp. virescens


Eragrostis mexicana (Hornem.) Link subsp. mexicana

Culms and sheaths sometimes with glandular depressions. Spikelets 1.5-2.4 mm wide, ovate to oblong in outline. Lower glumes 1.2-2.3 mm; sum of spikelet width and lower glume length 2.7-4.7 mm.

Eragrostis mexicana subsp. mexicana grows from Ontario through the midwestern United States to California, South Carolina, and Texas and southwards to Mexico.


Eragrostis mexicana subsp. virescens (J. Presl) S.D. Koch & Sánchez Vega

Culms and sheaths without glandular depressions. Spikelets 0.7-1.4 mm wide, linear to linear-lanceolate. Lower glumes 0.7-1.7 mm; sum of spikelet width and lower glume length 1.5-3.1 mm.

Eragrostis mexicana subsp. virescens has a disjunct distribution, growing in California and western Nevada and, in South America, from Ecuador to Chile, southern Brazil, and northern Argentina. It has also been found, as an introduction, at various other locations in North America, including eastern North America.


13.   Eragrostis frankii C.A. Mey. ex Steud.
Sandbar Lovegrass, Éragrostide de Frank

Plants annual; cespitose, without innovations. Culms 10-50 cm, erect to geniculate, glabrous, often with glandular pits below the nodes. Sheaths mostly glabrous, apices hirsute, hairs to 4 mm, often also with glandular pits; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades (2)4-10(21) cm long, 1-4 mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous adaxially. Panicles 4-20 cm long, less than 1/2 the height of the plants, 2-10(14) cm wide, narrowly elliptic, open; primary branches 2-6 cm, compact, diverging 20-70° from the rachises, capillary, sometimes with glandular pits, naked basally; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 1.5-5 mm, divergent. Spikelets (1.7)2-4(5.6) mm long, 1-2(2.5) mm wide, broadly ovate to lanceolate, plumbeous to reddish-purple, with 3-6 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 1-1.5 mm; upper glumes 1-1.8 mm; lemmas 1.1-1.6 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1-1.5 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse; anthers 2 or 3, 0.2-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.4-0.7 mm, ovoid to rectangular-prismatic, striate, reddish-brown, adaxial surfaces flat or shallowly grooved, distal 2/3 opaque. 2n = 40, 80.

Eragrostis frankii is native in the central and eastern United States, but it has been found, as an introduction, in southern Ontario, and appears to be increasingly common in the northeastern United States. It grows in moist meadows, along streams and sand bars, in forest openings, and along roadsides, at 5-1500 m, usually in association with Pinus, Quercus, Acer, and Fagus grandiflora. The record from Santa Fe County, New Mexico, is based on a specimen collected by Fendler in 1847; there are no other collections from the state. Fendlers specimens seem to represent either an accidental introduction that did not become established or a labeling error.

Eragrostis frankii is similar to E. capillaris, but differs in its frequent possession of glandular pits, its flat or more shallowly grooved caryopses, shorter pedicels, and glabrous sheath margins, and in having panicles that are usually less than half as long as the culms.


14.   Eragrostis capillaris (L.) Nees
Lacegrass

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations, without glands. Culms (15)20-50(60) cm, erect, glabrous, often shiny below the nodes. Sheaths pilose along the margins, apices hirsute, hairs to 7 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades (6)8-20(30) cm long, (1)2-5 mm wide, flat, abaxial surfaces smooth, glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, with long scattered hairs. Panicles (10)15-45(55) cm long, (7)10-25 cm wide, to 2/3 the height of the plants, elliptic to ovate, open, rachises without glandular pits; primary branches (2)5-15 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary, naked basally; pulvini glabrous; pedicels (4)5-25 mm, divergent, scabridulous. Spikelets (1.4)2-5 mm long, 1-1.3(1.4) mm wide, ovate to lanceolate, plumbeous, occasionally reddish-purple, with 2-5(7) florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 1-1.2 mm, narrower than the upper glumes; upper glumes 1.2-1.4 mm; lemmas 1.2-1.7 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, keels scabridulous, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.2-1.6 mm, hyaline, keels almost smooth to scabrous, scabridities to 0.1 mm, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.3 mm, reddish-brown. Caryopses 0.4-0.7 mm, ovoid to rectangular-prismatic, adaxial surfaces deeply grooved, striate, bases reddish-brown, distal 2/3 opaque. 2n = 50, 100.

Eragrostis capillaris is native to the eastern portion of the Flora region. It grows in open, dry, sandy riverbanks, floodplains, rocky roadsides, and gravel pits, at 150-1500 m, usually in association with Pinus, Quercus, Carrya, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Its range extends into northeastern Mexico.

Eragrostis capillaris
resembles E. frankii, but differs in its lack of glandular pits, deeply grooved caryopses, longer pedicels, pilose sheath margins, and larger panicles. The two species are sympatric over much of the eastern United States.


15.   Eragrostis lutescens Scribn.
Sixweeks Lovegrass

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations. Culms (2)6-25 cm, usually erect, sometimes decumbent, glabrous, with elliptical, yellowish, glandular pits below the nodes. Sheaths with elliptical glandular pits, sparsely hairy at the throat, hairs to 2 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades 2-12 cm long, 1-3 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces scabridulous, bases with glandular pits. Panicles terminal, 4-10(15) cm long, 0.5-2 cm wide, narrowly elliptic, contracted, dense; primary branches alternate, usually appressed, occasionally diverging to 30° from the rachises, rachises and branches with glandular pits; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 1.4-10 mm, appressed or divergent. Spikelets 3.6-7.5 mm long, 1.2-2 mm wide, narrowly ovate, light yellowish, occasionally mottled with reddish-purple, with 6-11(14) florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, ovate to lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes (0.7)0.9-1.4 mm; upper glumes 1.2-1.8 mm; lemmas 1.5-2.2 mm, ovate, subhyaline, stramineous, veins greenish and conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.2-2 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.5-0.8 mm, pyriform except slightly flattened adaxially, smooth, light brown. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis lutescens grows on the sandy banks of streams and lakes and in moist alkaline flats of the western United States at 300-2000 m. It has not been reported from Mexico.


16.   Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv.
India Lovegrass, Éragrostide Poilue

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations. Culms 8-45(70) cm, erect or geniculate, glabrous, occasionally with a few glandular depressions. Sheaths mostly glabrous, occasionally glandular, apices hirsute, hairs to 3 mm; ligules 0.1-0.3 mm, ciliate; blades 2-15(20) cm long, 1-2.5(4) mm wide, flat, abaxial surfaces glabrous, occasionally with glandular pits along the midrib, adaxial surfaces scabridulous. Panicles 4-20(28) cm long, 2-15(18) cm wide, ellipsoid to ovoid, diffuse; primary branches 1-10 cm, diverging 10-80° (110° ) from the rachises, capillary, whorled on the lowest 2 nodes, rarely glandular; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 1-10 mm, flexible, appressed or divergent. Spikelets (2)3.5-6(10) mm long, 0.6-1.4 mm wide, linear-oblong to narrowly ovate, plumbeous, with (3)5-17 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas tardily deciduous, rachillas persisting longer than the paleas. Glumes narrowly ovate to lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 0.3-0.6(0.8) mm; upper glumes 0.7-1.2(1.4) mm; lemmas 1.2-1.8(2) mm, ovate-lanceolate, membranous to hyaline, grayish-green proximally,reddish-purple distally, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1-1.6 mm, membranous to hyaline, keels scabridulous to scabrous, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.5-1 mm, obovoid to prism-shaped, adaxial surfaces flat, smooth to faintly striate, light brown. 2n = 20 [A. Murin, Z. Svobodová, J. Májovský, and V. Feráková. 1999. Chromosome numbetrs of some species of the Slovak flora. Thaiszia 9:31-40], 40.

Eragrostis pilosa is native to Eurasia but has become naturalized in many parts of the world. In the Flora region, it grows in forest margins and disturbed sites such as roadsides, railroad embankments, gardens, and cultivated fields, at 0-2500 m.

1
Plants with numerous glandular pits scattered over the whole plant, especially on the midribs of the sheaths and blades; lemmas 1.8-2 mm long ..... var. perplexa
Plants with a few glandular pits scattered on the culms or without any glandular pits; lemmas 1.2-1.8 mm long ..... var. pilosa


Eragrostis pilosa var. perplexa (L.H. Harv.) S.D. Koch

Culms with numerous glandular pits. Sheaths with glandular pits; blades with glandular pits. Spikelets 0.6-1.4 mm wide. Upper glumes 1-1.4 mm; lemmas 1.8-2 mm. Caryopses 0.8-1 mm.

Eragrostis pilosa var. perplexa is known from widely scattered locations in Wyoming, North Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and northwestern Texas.


Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. var. pilosa

Culms with few or no glandular pits; sheaths and blades without glandular pits. Spikelets 0.6-1.3 mm wide. Upper glumes 0.7-1.2 mm; lemmas 1.2-1.8 mm; caryopses 0.5-0.9 mm.

Eragrostis pilosa var. pilosa is more common than var. perplexa in the Flora region. Most of the records shown on the map are for this variety.


17.   Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees
Tufted Lovegrass, Éragrostide Pectinée

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations, without glandular pits. Culms 10-80 cm, erect to geniculate or decumbent below, glabrous. Sheaths hirsute at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm; blades 2-20 cm long, 1-4.5 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous and smooth, adaxial surfaces scabridulous. Panicles 5-25 cm long, 3-12(15) cm wide, ovoid to pyramidal, usually open, sometimes contracted; primary branches 0.6-8.5 cm, appressed or diverging to 80° from the rachises, solitary or paired at the lowest 2 nodes; pulvini glabrous or sparsely hairy; pedicels 1-7 mm, flexible, appressed to widely divergent, sometimes capillary. Spikelets 3.5-11 mm long, 1.2-2.5 mm wide, linear-oblong to narrowly lanceolate, plumbeous, yellowish-brown, or dark reddish-purple, with 6-22 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes subulate to ovate-lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 0.5-1.5 mm, at least 1/2 as long as the adjacent lemmas; upper glumes 1-1.7 mm, usually broader than the lower glumes; lemmas 1-2.2 mm, ovate-lanceolate, hyaline to membranous, grayish-green proximally, reddish-purple distally, lateral veins moderately conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1-2 mm, hyaline to membranous, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.7 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.5-1.1 mm, pyriform, slightly laterally compressed, smooth, faintly striate, brownish. 2n = 60.

Eragrostis pectinacea is native from southern Canada to Argentina. In the Flora region, it grows in disturbed sites such as roadsides, railroad embankments, gardens, and cultivated fields, at 0-1200 m.

1
Anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long ..... var. tracyi
Anthers 0.2-0.4 mm long (2)
Pedicels appressed, rarely diverging to 20° from the branches ..... var. pectinacea
Pedicels widely divergent, usually diverging 20-60° from the branches ..... var. miserrima


Eragrostis pectinacea var. miserrima (E. Fourn.) Reeder

Pedicels widely divergent, usually spreading 20-60° from the branches. Anthers 0.2-0.4 mm.

Eragrostis pectinacea var. miserrima grows in the southern United States, from Texas to Florida, and south through the lowland tropics to Brazil. It usually flowers from July-November in the Flora region.


Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees var. pectinacea

Pedicels appressed or diverging to 20° from the branch axes. Anthers 0.2-0.4 mm.

Eragrostis pectinacea var. pectinacea grows throughout the range of the species, including most of the contiguous United States. Within the Flora region, it is most common in the eastern states and usually flowers from July-November.


Eragrostis pectinacea var. tracyi (Hitchc.) P.M. Peterson

Pedicels divergent, usually diverging 20-70° from the branches. Anthers 0.5-0.7 mm.

Eragrostis pectinacea var. tracyi is known from only Lee, Manatee, and Sarasota counties, Florida. It flowers from March-May and August-December in the Flora region.


18.   Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch.
Stinkgrass, Éragrostide Fétide

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations. Culms 15-45(65) cm, erect or decumbent, sometimes with crateriform glands below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous, occasionally glandular, apices hairy, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.4-0.8 mm, ciliate; blades (1)5-20 cm long, (1)3-5(10) mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, sometimes glandular, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, occasionally also hairy. Panicles (3)5-16(20) cm long, 2-8.5 cm wide, oblong to ovate, condensed to open; primary branches 0.4-5 cm, appressed or diverging 20-80° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 0.2-3 mm, stout, straight, stiff, usually divergent, occasionally appressed. Spikelets 6-20 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, ovate-lanceolate, plumbeous, greenish, with 10-40 florets; disarticulation below the florets, each floret falling as a unit, rachillas persistent. Glumes broadly ovate to lanceolate, membranous, usually glandular; lower glumes 1.2-2 mm, usually 1-veined; upper glumes 1.2-2.6 mm, often 3-veined; lemmas 2-2.8 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, keels with 1-3 crateriform glands, apices obtuse to acute; paleas 1.2-2.1 mm, hyaline, keels scabrous, sometimes also ciliate, cilia to 0.3 mm, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 3, 0.2-0.5 mm, yellow. Caryopses 0.5-0.7 mm, globose to broadly ellipsoid, smooth to faintly striate, not grooved, reddish-brown or translucent. 2n = 20.

Eragrostis cilianensis is an introduced European species that now grows in disturbed sites such as pastures and roadsides, at 0-2300 m, through most of the contiguous United States and southern Canada. The English name refers to the odor of fresh plants.


19.   Eragrostis barrelieri Daveau
Mediterranean Lovegrass

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations. Culms (5)10-60 cm, erect or decumbent, much-branched near the base, with a ring of glandular tissue below the nodes, rings often shiny or yellowish. Sheaths hairy at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades 1.5-10 cm long, 1-3(5) mm wide, flat, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous, sometimes scabridulous, occasionally with white hairs to 3 mm, margins without crateriform glands. Panicles 4-20 cm long, 2.2-8(10) cm wide, ovate, open to contracted, rachises with shiny or yellowish glandular spots or rings below the nodes; primary branches 0.5-6 cm, diverging 20-100° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 1-4 mm, stout, stiff, divergent, without glandular bands. Spikelets 4-7(11) mm long, 1.1-2.2 mm wide, narrowly ovate, reddish-purple to greenish, occasionally grayish, with 7-12(20) florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes broadly ovate, membranous, 1-veined; lower glumes 0.9-1.4 mm; upper glumes 1.2-1.6 mm; lemmas 1.4-1.8 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, apices acute to obtuse; paleas 1.3-1.7 mm, hyaline, keels scabrous, scabridities to 0.1 mm, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 3, 0.1-0.2 mm, reddish-brown. Caryopses 0.4-0.7 mm, ellipsoid, not grooved, smooth to faintly striate, light brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis barrelieri is a European species that is now naturalized in the Flora region, primarily in the southwestern United States. It grows on gravelly roadsides, in gardens, and other disturbed, sandy sites, especially near railroad yards, at 10-2000 m. The ring of glandular tissue is most conspicuous below the upper cauline nodes.


20.   Eragrostis minor Host
Little Lovegrass, Éragrostide Faux-Pâturin

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations. Culms 10-45 cm, erect to decumbent, sometimes with a ring of glandular tissue below the nodes. Sheaths sometimes glandular on the midveins, hairy at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm, ciliate; blades 1.5-10 cm long, 1-3(4) mm wide, flat, glabrous or sparsely white-hairy, margins sometimes with crateriform glands. Panicles 4-20 cm long, 2.2-8(10) cm wide, ovate, open to contracted, rachises sometimes with glandular spots or pits below the nodes, rarely with a glandular ring, glands usually dull, greenish-gray to stramineous; primary branches 0.5-6 cm, diverging 20-100° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 1-4 mm, stiff, straight, divergent, usually with a distal ring of crateriform glands. Spikelets 4-7(11) mm long, 1.1-2.2 mm wide, narrowly ovate, mostly reddish-purple to greenish, occasionally grayish, with 7-12(20) florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes broadly ovate, membranous; lower glumes 0.9-1.4 mm; upper glumes 1.2-1.6 mm; lemmas 1.4-1.8 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, keels occasionally with 1-2 crateriform glands, apices acute to obtuse; paleas 1.3-1.7 mm, hyaline, keels smooth or scabridulous, scabridities to 0.1 mm, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 2, 0.2-0.3 mm, reddish-brown. Caryopses 0.4-0.7 mm, ellipsoid, not grooved, striate, light brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis minor is a European species that now grows in gravelly roadsides and disturbed sites, especially near railroad yards, at 20-1600 m in southern Canada and the contiguous United States.


21.   Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud.
Chinese Lovegrass

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations, without glands. Culms 10-50 cm, erect, glabrous below the nodes. Leaves mostly basal; sheaths mostly glabrous, apices pilose, hairs 0.4-3 mm; ligules 0.1-0.2 mm, ciliate; blades (1.8)5-12 cm long, 2-6 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous and glabrous or sparsely hairy, hairs appressed. Panicles 6-15 cm long, 0.5-7 cm wide, ovate, open to contracted; primary branches 0.2-5 cm, appressed or diverging up to 70° from the rachises, glabrous; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 2-8 mm, glabrous. Spikelets 4-8(10) mm long, (1.6)2-4 mm wide, ovate-lanceolate, loosely imbricate, straw-colored to purplish, with 12-42 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas not persistent, rachillas persistent. Glumes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, hyaline to membranous; lower glumes 1-1.8 mm; upper glumes 1-2.2 mm; lemmas 1.5-1.9 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, lateral veins raised, apices obtuse to acute; paleas 1.4-1.9 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 2, 0.2-0.4 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.6-0.9 mm, ellipsoid, laterally compressed, not grooved, smooth, light brown. 2n = 20, ca. 30.

Eragrostis unioloides is an Asian species that is now established in the southeastern United States, growing along roadsides and in disturbed ground, at 20-150 m.


22.   Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter
Teff

Plants annual; loosely tuf
ted, without innovations, without glands. Culms 25-60 cm, erect, glabrous and shiny. Sheaths mostly glabrous, apices hairy, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm, ciliate; blades 10-30 cm long, 2-5.5 mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous adaxially. Panicles 10-45 cm long, 2.5-22 cm wide, ovate, open to contracted; primary branches 4-17 cm, appressed or diverging up to 50° from the rachises, flexible, naked below; pulvini glabrous or hairy, hairs to 5 mm; pedicels 2.5-17 mm, appressed or divergent. Spikelets 4-11 mm long, 1.3-2.5 mm wide, linear-lanceolate to ovate, stramineous, grayish-green to purplish, with 4-16 florets; disarticulation tardy, acropetal, caryopses falling before the glumes and lemmas, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate, membranous to hyaline; lower glumes 1-2 mm; upper glumes 1.5-2.8 mm; lemmas 1.6-3 mm, lanceolate, membranous, apices acute; paleas 1.4-2.2 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.5 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.7-1.3 mm, obovoid, not grooved, smooth, light brown to whitish. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis tef is native to northern Africa. In Ethiopia, it is used both as a grain and as fodder for cattle. It is also grown, but not commonly, for these purposes in the Flora region and is occasionally found as an escape from cultivation.


23.   Eragrostis gangetica (Roxb.) Steud.
Slimflower Lovegrass

Plants annual; tufted, without innovations, without glands. Culms (12)25-75 cm, usually erect, sometimes geniculate and branched below, glabrous, reddish. Sheaths glabrous, apices usually with 0.3-2.2 mm hairs; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm, ciliate; blades (5)7-17 cm long, 1-3 mm wide, flat to folded basally, involute apically, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, sometimes with scattered hairs near the base. Panicles (6)11-21 cm long, 1-13 cm wide, ovate to somewhat contracted, open; primary branches 0.5-12 cm, (12)15-20 per culm, appressed or diverging up to 60° from the rachises, often capillary, naked near the base; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.3-5 mm, mostly appressed. Spikelets 2-4.6 mm long, 0.9-2 mm wide, narrowly ovate, greenish-yellow to plumbeous and with a reddish-purple tinge, with 5-15 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, membranous; lower glumes 0.4-0.9 mm; upper glumes 1-1.3 mm, occasionally 3-veined; lemmas 1-1.3 mm, broadly ovate, membranous, often reddish-purple, lateral veins conspicuous, often greenish, apices acute; paleas 0.9-1.1 mm, hyaline, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse; anthers 2, 0.1-0.2 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 0.3-0.5 mm, subglobose to obovoid, not grooved, translucent, faintly striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 80.

Eragrostis gangetica is an Asian species that now grows in the southeastern United States. It can be found in the sandy margins of ponds, roadsides, and ditches, at 0-100 m, usually in association with Pinus, Taxodium distichum, Rynchospora, and Steinchisma hians. Eragrostis gangetica is similar to E. bahiensis, but differs from that species in its annual habit and shorter spikelets, lemmas, anthers, and caryopses.


24.   Eragrostis superba Peyr.
Sawtooth Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without glands. Culms 45-95 cm, erect, glabrous. Sheaths hairy at the apices and on the margins, hairs to 6 mm; ligules 0.5-1.2 mm; blades 7-30 cm long, 2.5-7 mm wide, flat to loosely involute, glabrous abaxially, scabrous adaxially, margins sharply scabrous. Panicles 10-30 cm long, 1-6 cm wide, oblong, condensed, interrupted below; primary branches 1-11 cm, appressed or diverging to 40° from the rachises, naked basally; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.5-25 mm, with a narrow band or abscission line below the apices. Spikelets 5.5-16 mm long, 2.7-9 mm wide, ovate, flattened, greenish to stramineous, sometimes with a reddish-purple tinge, with 4-22 florets; disarticulation below the glumes, spikelets falling intact. Glumes equal, 3-4.5 mm, ovate, chartaceous; lemmas 3-5 mm, broadly lanceolate, chartaceous to leathery, lateral veins green, apices acute; paleas 3-5 mm, chartaceous to hyaline, keels broadly winged below, forming a wing or tooth on each side that often projects beyond the lemma bases, apices acuminate; anthers 3, 1.4-2.8 mm, golden-yellow. Caryopses 1-2 mm, ellipsoid, adaxial surfaces flattened, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis superba is native to Africa, where it is grown for hay, being fairly palatable and drought resistant. It is also used for erosion control and revegetation. In the Flora region, it grows on rocky slopes, in sandy flats, and along roadsides, at 480-1650 m, often with Acacia, Prosopsis, Fouquieria splendens, Juniperus, and Quercus. The English name is an appropriate description of the leaf blades.


25.   Eragrostis echinochloidea Stapf
Tickgrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations. Culms 30-100 cm, erect to geniculate, with narrow, sunken glandular bands. Sheaths sometimes glandular, apices hairy, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.4-1 mm; blades 5-21 cm long, 2-6(7) mm wide, flat to involute, with small crateriform glands on the keels and veins, sparsely pilose adaxially. Panicles 4-19 cm long, 0.8-7 cm wide, oblong to ovate, glomerate, spikelets clustered in 1-sided groups; primary branches 0.5-7.5 cm, diverging 10-90° from the rachises, angled, sinuous, glandular; pulvini hairy, hairs to 2 mm; pedicels 0.2-2 mm, stout, erect, without a narrow band or abscission line near the apices. Spikelets 2-5 mm long, 2-3.5 mm wide, broadly ovate, greenish, stramineous to plumbeous, with 7-14 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes subequal, 1.7-2.2 mm, ovate, membranous, keels with small crateriform glands, apices acute to acuminate; lemmas 1.8-2.3 mm, broadly ovate to orbicular, chartaceous, keels with small crateriform glands, apices acute to obtuse; paleas 1.7-2.2 mm, chartaceous, each side with a broad wing at the base, wings often projecting beyond the lemma bases, apices acute; anthers 3, 0.5-0.9 mm, yellowish. Caryopses 0.8-1.1 mm, ellipsoid, reddish-brown. 2n = 30.

Eragrostis echinochloidea is native to southern Africa. It is now established in Arizona, growing in gravel soils, often along roadsides and in sidewalks, from 700-1000 m. It has also been found in Prince Georges County, Maryland.


26.   Eragrostis obtusiflora (E. Fourn.) Scribn.
Alkali Lovegrass

Plants perennial; rhizomatous, sometimes also stoloniferous, with many innovations and scaly, sharp-tipped rhizomes 4-8 mm thick. Culms 15-40(50) cm, erect, stiff, hard. Sheaths hairy at the apices, hairs to 2 mm; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm, membranous, ciliate; blades 2-15 cm long, (1)2-4 mm wide, involute, arcuate, glabrous abaxially, scabrous adaxially, apices sharply pointed. Panicles terminal, 6-20(24) cm long, 2-8(12) cm wide, ovate, open or contracted; primary branches 1-8(15) cm, appressed or diverging up to 50° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous or not; pedicels 0-8 mm, appressed, lower pedicels on each branch shorter than 1 mm. Spikelets 8-14 mm long, 1.4-3 mm wide, ovate to lanceolate, stramineous with a reddish-purple tinge, with 5-10 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes unequal, chartaceous; lower glumes 2.4-3.6 mm; upper glumes 3-4.5 mm, sometimes 3-veined; lemmas 3.8-4.5 mm, ovate, leathery, 3(4, 5)-veined, lateral veins evident, greenish, upper margins hyaline, apices acute to obtuse, usually erose; paleas 3.8-4.5 mm, membranous, keels scabridulous, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 2-2.4 mm, purplish to yellowish. Caryopses 1.6-2 mm, ellipsoid, dorsally flattened, with a shallow adaxial groove, striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis obtusiflora is native to the southwestern United States and Mexico. It grows in dry or wet alkali flats, often in association with Distichlis and Sarcobatus, at 900-1400 m.


27.   Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud.
Purple Lovegrass, Éragrostide Brillante

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and short, knotty rhizomes less than 4 mm thick. Culms 30-70(85) cm, erect, glabrous. Sheaths hairy on the margins and at the apices, hairs to 7 mm; ligules 0.1-0.2 mm; blades 10-32 cm long, 3-8 mm wide, flat to involute, both surfaces usually pilose, sometimes glabrous on both surfaces or glabrous abaxially and sparsely pilose adaxially, often with a line of hairs behind the ligules, hairs to 8 mm. Panicles (15)25-45(60) cm long, 15-35 cm wide, broadly ovate to oblong, open, basal portions sometimes included in the uppermost leaf sheaths; primary branches (6)12-20 cm long, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary, naked below; pulvini hairy, hairs to 6 mm; pedicels 1.5-17 mm, divergent or appressed. Spikelets 3-7.5 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, reddish-purple, sometimes olivaceous, with (4)6-12 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes subequal to equal, (1)1.3-2.3 mm, lanceolate, membranous to chartaceous; lemmas (1)1.3-2.5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, leathery, 3-veined, apices acute; paleas (1)1.2-2.4 mm, membranous, keels sometimes shortly ciliate, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 0.3-0.5 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, ellipsoid, strongly flattened, adaxial surfaces with 2 prominent ridges separated by a groove, reddish-brown. 2n = 20, 40, 42.

Eragrostis spectabilis is native in the eastern portion of the Flora region, extending from southern Canada through the United States, Mexico, and Central America to Belize. It grows in fields and on the margins of woods, along roadsides, and in other disturbed sites, usually in sandy to clay loam soils, at 0-1830 m, and is associated with hardwood forests, Prosopsis-Acacia grasslands, and shortgrass prairies. A showy species, E. spectabilis is available commercially for planting as an ornamental.


28.   Eragrostis curtipedicellata Buckley
Gummy Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and short, knotty rhizomes less than 4 mm thick. Culms 20-65 cm, erect, viscid. Sheaths usually viscid, hairy at the apices and on the collars and margins, hairs to 6 mm; ligules 0.1-0.3 mm; blades 5-18 cm long, 2-4(5) mm wide, flat to involute, sometimes viscid, densely hairy behind the ligules, hairs to 8 mm. Panicles 18-35 cm long, 10-30 cm wide, broadly ovate, open; primary branches 3-18 cm, diverging 10-90° from the rachises, stiff, viscid, naked basally; pulvini hairy, hairs to 6 mm; pedicels 0.2-1.2 mm, appressed. Spikelets 3.5-6(7.6) mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, stramineous to reddish-purple, with 4-10 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes 0.9-1.8 mm; upper glumes 1.2-2 mm, 1-3-veined; lemmas 1.5-2.2 mm, ovate to lanceolate, membranous, 3-veined, lateral veins evident, apices acute; paleas 1.2-2 mm, hyaline, not wider than the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.4 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, ellipsoid, terete in cross section, neither ridged nor grooved, faintly striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

The range of Eragrostis curtipedicellata extends from southern Colorado, Kansas, and Missouri to northeastern Mexico. It grows near fields, along roadsides, and in the margins of woods, at 10-1525 m.


29.   Eragrostis silveana Swallen
Silveus' Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and short, knotty rhizomes less than 4 mm thick. Culms 45-60 cm, erect, often glandular below the nodes, sometimes viscid. Sheaths often viscid, sometimes sparsely pilose, hairy at the apices, hairs to 6 mm; ligules 0.2-0.3 mm; blades 8-25 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous, sometimes viscid. Panicles 20-35(42) cm long, 10-22 cm wide, broadly ovate, open, bases included in the uppermost leaf sheaths; primary branches 5-14 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary, sometimes viscid, naked basally; pulvini hairy, hairs to 6 mm; pedicels (1)1.5-12 mm, diverging or appressed. Spikelets (2.5)3-4.8 mm long, 0.9-1.4 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, reddish-purple, with 4-9 florets; disarticulation basipetal, glumes persistent. Glumes lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes 0.9-1.2 mm; upper glumes 1-1.3 mm; lemmas 1.1-1.4 mm, ovate to lanceolate, membranous, 3-veined, apices acute; paleas 1-1.4 mm, hyaline, not wider than the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.5-0.6 mm, ellipsoid, terete in cross section, neither ridged nor grooved, faintly striate, reddish-brown. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis silveana grows in various open habitats, from sandy prairies to clay loam flats, near roadsides, railroads, and fields at 0-100 m. Its range is limited to the coastal plain of Texas and northern Mexico. Morphologically, E. silveana is somewhat intermediate between E. spectabilis and E. curtipedicellata, and grows where the distribution of these two species overlaps.


30.   Eragrostis spicata Vasey
Spike Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes. Culms 75-100 cm, erect, glabrous. Sheaths hirtellous on the margins when immature, apices glabrous or hairy shorter than 0.5 mm; ligules 0.2-0.3 mm; blades 20-40 cm long, 2-5(6) mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous abaxially, scabrous adaxially. Panicles 22-40 cm long, 0.3-0.6 cm wide, spikelike, dense; primary branches shorter than 1.2 cm, closely appressed, spikelet-bearing to the base; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.1-0.6 mm, mostly appressed, hirtellous. Spikelets 1.4-2.2 mm long, 0.9-1.2 mm wide, ovate, stramineous to light greenish, with 2-3 florets; disarticulation basipetal, in the rachilla below the individual florets or at the base of the florets, glumes persistent. Glumes elliptic to ovate, hyaline, keels ciliolate; lower glumes 0.7-1 mm; upper glumes 0.9-1.3 mm, apices obtuse; lemmas 1.5-2.1 mm, ovate, membranous to hyaline, apices acute to obtuse; paleas 1.1-1.6 mm, hyaline, not wider than the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 2, 0.3-0.4 mm, reddish-brown. Caryopses 0.7-1 mm, ellipsoid, somewhat ventrally flattened, smooth to faintly striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis spicata grows in moist areas in prairies, usually in deep, sandy, clay loam soils, at 0-70 m. It is native from southern Texas to Mexico and in Paraguay and Argentina. In North America, it grows with Andropogon, Quercus stellata, Prosopsis glandulosa, and Acacia.


31.   Eragrostis plana Nees

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes. Culms 65-100 cm, erect, glabrous. Sheaths flattened, smooth, shiny, glabrous or puberulent; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades 15-50(70) cm long, 2-4 mm wide, folded, margins involute or revolute, abaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely hairy, adaxial surfaces scabridulous. Panicles 13-28 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, narrowly oblong to narrowly lanceolate, contracted to open; primary branches 1-8 cm, appressed or diverging up to 30° from the rachises; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 1-7 mm, appressed, glabrous. Spikelets 6-14 mm long, 1.3-2.5 mm wide, linear-oblong, greenish to plumbeous, with 9-14 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes narrowly ovate to lanceolate, membranous to hyaline; lower glumes 0.4-1.2 mm, scalelike; upper glumes 1-1.5 mm; lemmas 1.8-3 mm, ovate, membranous, strongly keeled, keels with minute punctate glands, lateral veins conspicuous, apices acute to obtuse; paleas 1.8-3 mm, hyaline to membranous, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 1.2-1.8 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 1-1.6 mm, rectangular-prismatic to ovoid, laterally compressed, adaxial surfaces deeply grooved, smooth, opaque, reddish-brown. 2n = 20.

Eragrostis plana is native to southern Africa. It is known from two locations in the Flora region, both waste areas near sheep and cattle lots in Florence County, South Carolina.


32.   Eragrostis swallenii Hitchc.
Swallen's Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes. Culms 35-70 cm, erect, with glandular bands below the nodes. Sheaths hairy on the margins and at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm; blades (8)10-25(30) cm long, 1.5-4 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, sometimes also sparsely hairy, hairs to 4 mm. Panicles 12-30 cm long, 5-16 cm wide, ovate, open, an oblique glandular ring present below the lowest rachis node; primary branches 2-10 cm, diverging 10-70° from the rachises, flexible; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 1.5-14 mm, divergent, with a glandular band. Spikelets 5-16 mm long, 1.2-2.3 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, plumbeous to dark reddish-purple, with 5-25 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes ovate, membranous to hyaline; lower glumes 1.1-1.5 mm; upper glumes 1.4-2 mm; lemmas 1.5-2.5 mm, ovate, membranous, strongly keeled, keels without glands, lateral veins conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.2-2.1 mm, hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 0.3-0.5 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.8-1.1 mm, rectangular-prismatic to ellipsoid, somewhat laterally compressed, with a well-developed adaxial groove, smooth, faintly striate, mostly opaque, light reddish-brown. 2n = 84.

Eragrostis swallenii grows in sandy sites along coastal grasslands and roadsides, often with Andropogon and Spartina, at 30-150 m. Its range extends around the Gulf coast from Texas to Mexico.


33.   Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Alph. Wood
Sand Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-120(160) cm, erect, glabrous and non-glandular below the nodes. Sheaths sometimes villous along the margins, apices hairy, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm; blades 15-46(65) cm long, 1.5-8 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, sometimes also pilose on the basal 1/4, hairs to 4 mm. Panicles 30-80 cm long, 6-30 cm wide, oblong to ovoid, diffuse; primary branches 2-35 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, naked basally; pulvini hairy or glabrous; pedicels 2-22 cm, diverging, capillary. Spikelets 3-15 mm long, 1.5-3.6 mm wide, ovate to lanceolate, greenish-yellow with a reddish-purple tinge, with (2)4-18 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, 1.8-4 mm, narrowly ovate to linear-lanceolate, membranous, apices acuminate; upper glumes as long as or longer than the basal lemmas; lemmas 2.2-3.5 mm, broadly ovate to lanceolate, membranous, strongly keeled, keels not glandular, lateral veins conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.8-2.8 mm, hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, keels ciliolate, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 1-1.6 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.8-1.3 mm, rectangular-prismatic, somewhat laterally compressed, with a wide, deep adaxial groove, faintly striate, opaque, dark reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis trichodes grows in sandy to gravelly prairies, open sandy woods, rocky slopes, and roadsides, at 100-2150 m, often in associations with Quercus marilandica, Q. stellata, Juniperus, and Redfieldia flexuosa. It is endemic to the contiguous United States, and is available commercially as an ornamental. Records from outside the primary range probably reflect introductions.


34.   Eragrostis palmeri S. Watson
Rio Grande Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and knotty bases, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 50-90(120) cm, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths villous and the hairs not papillose-based, or mostly glabrous, apices hairy, hairs to 5 mm, not papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades (14)20-35 cm long, 1-2.4 mm wide, involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, sometimes sparsely hairy. Panicles 12-40 cm long, 4-20 cm wide, oblong, open; primary branches 2-20 cm, diverging 20-70° from the rachises, capillary; pulvini glabrous or sparsely hairy; pedicels (0.4)1-4(14) mm, appressed or diverging, only the terminal pedicels on each branch longer than 4 mm. Spikelets 4-6(7.3) mm long, 1-2 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, plumbeous, with 5-12 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, hyaline; lower glumes 1.1-1.8 mm; upper glumes 1.2-2.2 mm, exceeded by the basal lemmas; lemmas 2-2.6 mm, ovate, membranous, hyaline towards the apices and margins, keels weak or strong, without glands, lateral veins from inconspicuous to conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.7-2.4 mm, hyaline, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, apices truncate, often notched; anthers 3, 0.6-1.3 mm, yellowish to purplish. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, rectangular-prismatic to subellipsoid, laterally compressed, with a well-developed adaxial groove, faintly striate, opaque, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis palmeri grows on rocky slopes and hills between 300-2150 m, generally in association with Pinus edulis, Juniperus monosperma, Bouteloua gracilis, and Prosopis. Its range extends from the southwestern United States into Mexico. It resembles E. erosa, but differs in its shorterlemmas and caryopses.


35.   Eragrostis polytricha Nees
Hairysheath Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-62 cm, erect, glabrous and shiny below the nodes. Sheaths sometimes densely pilose dorsally and on the collars, margins and apices hairy, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades 5-20(33) cm long, 1-3.5 mm wide, involute to flat, both surfaces with scattered hairs, adaxial surfaces densely hairy behind the ligules, hairs to 7 mm. Panicles 15-25 cm long, 5-27 cm wide, ovate, open; primary branches 0.6-15 cm, diverging up to 90° from the rachises, capillary, naked basally; pulvini hairy, hairs to 8 mm; pedicels 1.4-10(16) mm, divergent. Spikelets (2.5)3-5 mm long, 1.1-1.6 mm wide, narrowly lanceolate to linear-oblong, plumbeous, with 4-9 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes broadly ovate to narrowly lanceolate, hyaline to membranous; lower glumes 1.1-1.6 mm; upper glumes 1.2-1.8 mm; lemmas 1.2-1.8 mm, broadly ovate, membranous throughout, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.1-1.7 mm, membranous to hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.3-0.5 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 0.5-0.8 mm, obovoid to somewhat prism-shaped, laterally compressed, with a well-developed adaxial groove, finely striate, opaque to translucent, reddish-brown. 2n = 60, 80.

Eragrostis polytricha grows in sandy and rocky areas, at 0-30 m, usually in open pinelands. It is native to Florida but its primary range lies to the south of the Flora region, from southern Mexico through Central America to Venezuela, Chile, and Argentina.


36.   Eragrostis lugens Nees
Mourning Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-70 cm, erect, sometimes geniculate, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths usually mostly glabrous, summits hairy, hairs 2-5 mm, never papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.3 mm; blades (4)8-22 cm long, 1-3.5 mm wide, involute to flat, both surfaces glabrous, margins sometimes with scattered hairs, hairs to 7 mm. Panicles 16-28 cm long, 10-21 cm wide, ovate, open; primary branches 0.6-15 cm, diverging up to 100° from the rachises, naked basally; pulvini hairy; pedicels 1.4-5(7) mm, diverging, wiry, present on all spikelets. Spikelets 2-4.5(5) mm long, 0.5-1(1.3) mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, plumbeous to reddish-purple, with 2-7 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes broadly ovate to narrowly lanceolate, hyaline, sometimes reddish-purple; lower glumes 0.6-1 mm; upper glumes 1.1-1.4 mm, usually broader than the lower glumes; lemmas 1.2-1.8 mm, broadly ovate, mostly membranous but the distal margins hyaline, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.1-1.7 mm, membranous to hyaline, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.2-0.7 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 0.5-0.6 mm, obovoid to somewhat prism-shaped, terete to somewhat laterally compressed, sometimes with a weak adaxial groove, finely striate, usually opaque, faintly reddish-brown to whitish. 2n = 40, 80, ca. 108.

Eragrostis lugens grows on sandy dunes and along river banks, at 1-300 m. Its range extends from the southern United States to Peru and Argentina.


37.   Eragrostis hirsuta (Michx.) Nees
Bigtop Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and hardened bases, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms (30)45-100 cm, erect, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths rarely glabrous, apices and distal margins usually hairy, sometimes also densely hairy basally, dorsally, and on the collars, hairs to 6 mm, papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades 25-60 cm long, 3-8(11) mm wide, flat to loosely involute, usually glabrous, adaxial surfaces sometimes hairy basally. Panicles 25-85 cm long, 15-40 cm wide, broadly ovate, open; primary branches mostly 4-35(45) cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 2-28 mm, divergent. Spikelets 2-4(5) mm long, 1-1.7 mm wide, lanceolate, greenish with purplish tinges, with 2-6 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate, hyaline to membranous; lower glumes 1.1-2 mm; upper glumes 1.5-2.8 mm, apices acuminate to acute; lemmas 1.6-2.4 mm, ovate, membranous, hyaline near the margins, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.2-2.2 mm, hyaline, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 3, 0.3-0.8 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.8-1 mm, rectangular-prismatic, somewhat laterally compressed, with or without a well-developed adaxial groove, striate, opaque, reddish-brown. 2n = 100.

Eragrostis hirsuta grows in sandy clay loams on the coastal plain and along roadsides, at 0-150 m, usually in association with Pinus palustris and Quercus. Its range extends from the southeastern United States through eastern Mexico to Guatemala and Belize.


38.   Eragrostis intermedia Hitchc.
Plains Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms (30)40-90(110) cm, erect, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths sparsely pilose on the margins, apices hairy, hairs to 8 mm, not papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades (4)10-20(30) cm long, 1-3 mm wide, flat or involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces densely hairy behind the ligules, elsewhere usually glabrous, occasionally sparsely hairy. Panicles 15-40 cm long, (8.5)15-30 cm wide, ovate, open; primary branches 4-25 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary; pulvini hairy or glabrous; pedicels 2-14 mm, divergent. Spikelets 3-7 mm long, 1-1.8 mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, olivaceous to purplish, with (3)5-11 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, hyaline to membranous; lower glumes 1.1-1.7 mm,narrower than the upper glumes; upper glumes 1.3-2 mm, apices acuminate to acute; lemmas 1.6-2.2 mm, ovate, membranous, hyaline near the margins, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.4-2.1 mm, hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 3, 0.5-0.8 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.5-0.9 mm, rectangular-prismatic, somewhat laterally compressed, with a well-developed adaxial groove, striate, opaque, reddish-brown. 2n = ca. 54, 60, 72, ca. 74, 80, 100, 120.

Eragrostis intermedia grows in clay, sandy, and rocky soils, often in disturbed sites, at 0-1850 m. Its range extends from the United States through Mexico and Central America to South America. Eragrostis intermedia is similar to the more widespread E. lugens, but differs from that species in having wider spikelets, longer lemmas, and caryopses with a prominent adaxial groove.


39.   Eragrostis erosa Scribn. ex Beal
Chihuahua Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 70-110 cm, erect, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths hairy at the apices and sometimes on the upper margins, hairs to 4 mm, not papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades (8)12-30 cm long, 1.5-3.8 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, glabrous or sparsely hairy, hairs to 4 mm. Panicles 25-45 cm long, (5)12-30 cm wide, broadly ovate, open; primary branches mostly 4-20 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary, sinuous; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 1-18 mm, appressed or divergent, proximal spikelets on each branch usually with pedicels shorter than 5 mm. Spikelets 5-9 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, lanceolate, plumbeous, with 5-12 florets; disarticulation acropetal, glumes first, then the lemmas, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, membranous; lower glumes 1.3-2.4 mm; upper glumes 1.6-2.6 mm; lemmas 2.4-3 mm, ovate, mostly membranous, hyaline near the margins and apices, lateral veins inconspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.5-3 mm, hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 3, 0.6-1.7 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.8-1.6 mm, subellipsoid, terete to somewhat laterally compressed, with a well-developed adaxial groove, faintly striate, opaque, reddish-brown. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis erosa grows on rocky slopes and hills, at 1200-2300 m, often in association with Pinus edulis, Juniperus monosperma, and Bouteloua gracilis. Its range extends from New Mexico and western Texas to northern Mexico.


40.   Eragrostis refracta (Muhl.) Scribn.
Coastal Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-85(110) cm, glabrous and shiny below the nodes. Sheaths sparsely hairy at the apices, hairs to 6 mm; ligules 0.1-0.4 mm; blades 10-35 cm long, 2-5 mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous and sparsely pilose adaxially, hairs to 7 mm. Panicles (25)30-60 cm long, 25-40 cm wide, broadly ovate to obovate, open, diffuse; primary branches 5-25 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary; pulvini hairy or glabrous; pedicels 0.5-25 mm, appressed, only the terminal pedicels on each branch longer than the spikelets. Spikelets 4-18(23) mm long, 1.4-3.4 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, grayish-green or stramineous to purplish, with (4)9-30 florets; disarticulation tardy, basipetal, in the rachillas below the florets, glumes persistent. Glumes narrowly lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes 0.8-2.4 mm; upper glumes 1.5-2.6 mm; lemmas 1.4-2.8 mm, lanceolate, membranous, apices acute to acuminate; paleas 1-2.6 mm, hyaline to membranous, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 2, 0.3-0.5 mm, purplish or brownish. Caryopses 0.5-0.9 mm, ovoid to ellipsoid, finely striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 28.

Eragrostis refracta grows in sandy pinelands, savannahs, marshes, and woodlands on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States, at 0-150 m. It is not known from Mexico.


41.   Eragrostis elliottii S. Watson
Elliott's Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 25-80 cm, erect, glabrous and shiny below the basal nodes. Sheaths sparsely hairy at the apices, hairs to 6 mm; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades 6-30(52) cm long, 2-4.5 mm wide, flat, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, sometimes with a few scattered hairs near the base. Panicles (25)30-60 cm long, 15-45 cm wide, broadly ovate to obovate, open, diffuse; primary branches mostly 5-25(32) cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, capillary; pulvini hairy; pedicels (4)10-35(50) mm, widely diverging, capillary, all the pedicels on each branch longer than the spikelets. Spikelets 4-18 mm long, 1.4-3 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, grayish-green or stramineous to purplish, with (6)9-30 florets; disarticulation acropetal, below the lemmas, paleas persistent. Glumes narrowly lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes 1.1-3.4 mm; upper glumes 1.6-3.4 mm, apices acuminate; lemmas 1.8-4.4 mm, lanceolate, membranous, lateral veins evident to inconspicuous, sometimes greenish, apices acute to acuminate; paleas 1.1-3.5 mm, hyaline to membranous, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 2, 0.3-0.8 mm, purplish or brownish. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, ovoid to ellipsoid, finely striate, reddish-brown. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis elliottii grows in sandy pinelands and live-oak woodlands on the coastal plain, at 0-150 m. Its range extends from the southeastern United States through the West Indies and Gulf coast of Mexico to Central and South America.


42.   Eragrostis secundiflora J. Presl
Red Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-75 cm, erect, glabrous below. Sheaths mostly glabrous, hairy at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.2-0.3 mm; blades 10-25(40) cm long, 1-5 mm wide, involute, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous adaxially, sometimes also sparsely pilose. Panicles (3)5-30 cm long, 1-15 cm wide, from narrowly oblong, glomerate, and interrupted below to ovate and open; primary branches 0.5-12(16) cm, appressed or diverging up to 40° from the rachises, stiff; pulvini glabrous or sparsely hairy; pedicels 0-1(3) mm, appressed, flattened. Spikelets 6-16(23) cm long, 2.4-5 mm wide, ovate to linear-elliptic, flattened, stramineous, with reddish-purple margins or completely reddish-purple, with 10-45 florets; disarticulation basipetal, florets falling intact and before the glumes. Glumes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, membranous; lower glumes 1.7-3 mm; upper glumes 2.2-4 mm, apices acuminate; lemmas 2-6 mm, ovate, membranous to leathery, apices usually acuminate or attenuate, sometimes acute; paleas 1.5-3 mm, membranous to leathery, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse, sometimes bifid; anthers 2, 0.2-0.5 mm, brownish. Caryopses 0.8-1.3 mm, ellipsoid, somewhat laterally flattened, smooth, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

There are two subspecies of E. secundiflora; plants from the Flora region belong to E. secundiflora subsp. oxylepis (Torr.) S.D. Koch. They grow in sandy soils, dunes, grasslands, beaches, and roadsides of the southern United States and northern Mexico, at 0-1000 m. Eragrostis secundiflora J. Presl subsp. secundiflora grows in Mexico and Central and South America.


43.   Eragrostis prolifera (Sw.) Steud.
Dominican Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 85-130(150) cm, stiffly erect, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous or hairy at the apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.1-0.2 mm; blades 25-50 cm long, 1.5-6 mm wide, flat to involute, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous adaxially, sometimes also with a few scattered hairs near the base. Panicles (10)20-50(60) cm long, 2-8(10) cm wide, narrowly ovate, contracted to open; primary branches mostly 2-14 cm, appressed or diverging up to 50° (90° ) from the rachises, spikelets congested near the base of the branches; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.3-2.4 mm, appressed, always shorterthan the spikelets. Spikelets 3.2-10(12) mm long, 0.7-1.4 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, stramineous to plumbeous, sometimes with a reddish tinge, with (5)8-25 florets; disarticulation acropetal, glumes first, then the lemmas, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, ovate to lanceolate, hyaline; lower glumes 1-1.5 mm; upper glumes 1.1-1.6 mm; lemmas 1.1-1.8(2) mm, ovate, membranous, apices acute; paleas 0.8-1.7 mm, hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 2, 0.2-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.6-0.9 mm, ovoid, flattened ventrally, finely striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis prolifera grows on beaches, in brackish water, and along roadsides, at elevations below 5 m in Florida. Its range extends southward from Florida through Mexico and Central America to Colombia.


44.   Eragrostis elongata (Willd.) J. Jacq.
Long Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 28-60 cm, erect to decumbent, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous, apices sparsely hairy, hairs to 2 mm; ligules 0.3-0.4 mm; blades 5-20 cm long, 0.8-3 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous, occasionally hairy near the base. Panicles terminal, (5)8-20(22) cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, spicate to narrowly ovate, branches condensed into glomerate lobes; primary branches 0.8-3 cm, appressed or diverging up to 90° from the rachises, spikelet-bearing to the base; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.2-1.3 mm, flattened, mostly appressed, all shorter than the spikelets. Spikelets 3-7 mm long, 1.8-2.4 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, stramineous with a reddish-purple tinge, with 8-18 florets; disarticulation acropetal, glumes first, then the lemmas, paleas persistent. Glumes subequal, 1.2-2 mm, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, membranous; lemmas 1.5-2.2 mm, lanceolate to ovate, leathery, greenish, lateral veins conspicuous, apices acute; paleas 1.1-1.7 mm, hyaline, narrower than the lemmas, keels ciliate, cilia to 0.2 mm, apices obtuse to acute; anthers 2, 0.2-0.3 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.4-0.5 mm, ovoid, not grooved, smooth, light brown. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis elongata is native to southeastern Asia and Australia, where it grows in disturbed, sandy soils at 0-50 m. It was collected once near Washington, D.C., probably as an escape from the U.S. Department of Agricultures experimental grass garden; it has not become established in the Flora region.


45.   Eragrostis bahiensis (Schrad.) Schult.
Bahia Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 25-95(110) cm, erect, glabrous. Sheaths glabrous, summits hairy, hairs 1-3 mm; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades (8)12-40 cm long, 2-5 mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces scabridulous and glabrous or long ciliate basally. Panicles terminal, 15-30(45) cm long, (4)8-17 cm wide, narrowly ovate, open to contracted; primary branches 5-15 cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises, often capillary, usually naked basally; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 0.3-6 mm, mostly appressed, scabridulous, always shorter than the spikelets. Spikelets 6-15(18) mm long, 1.3-2(2.2) mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, plumbeous, occasionally with a reddish-purple tinge, with 8-30(40) florets; disarticulation usually in the rachilla below the florets, occasionally the lemmas falling separately, leaving the paleas on the rachilla. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, membranous to subhyaline, keeled; lower glumes 1-1.4 mm; upper glumes 1.4-1.7 mm; lemmas 1.5-2.2 mm, broadly ovate, leathery, scabridulous, lateral veins evident, apices acute; paleas 1.4-2.1 mm, hyaline, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, keels scabridulous, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 2, 0.4-0.6 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 0.6-0.8 mm, obovoid to ellipsoid, terete, somewhat striate, reddish-brown. 2n = unknown.

Eragrostis bahiensis grows in sandy soils near river banks, lake shores, and roadsides, at 0-200 m. Its range extends south from the Gulf Coast of the United States through Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina.


46.   Eragrostis scaligera Salzm. ex Steud.

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 25-75 cm, erect, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous or with hairy apices, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.1-0.3 mm, ciliate; blades 4-8(18) cm long, 1-2 mm wide, involute, frequently deciduous, adaxial surfaces mostly glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base. Panicles terminal and axillary; terminal panicles 5-15 cm long, (1)2-10(12) cm wide, narrowly ovate, open; axillary panicles 2-5 cm long, 0.3-0.6 cm wide, usually contracted and partially to completely enclosed by the subtending sheath; primary branches 1-10 cm, appressed or diverging up to 90° from the rachises, wiry; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 0.3-5 mm, appressed, flattened. Spikelets 6-15(27) mm long, 1.6-2.4 mm wide, ovate-lanceolate, plumbeous to greenish, often with a reddish-purple tinge, with 10-35(45) florets; disarticulation acropetal, glumes first, then the lemmas, paleas persistent. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, membranous; lower glumes 1.4-2.1 mm; upper glumes 1.6-2.2 mm; lemmas (1.7)2-2.5 mm, broadly ovate, leathery, apices acute to acuminate; paleas 1.1-1.7 mm, hyaline, apices obtuse to truncate; anthers 2, 0.3-0.7 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 0.5-0.6mm, globose, not grooved, smooth, light reddish-brown. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis scaligera is known from Lee and Collier counties, Florida, where it grows in sandy areas in the coastal scrub zone and along adjacent roadsides, at 0-10 m. It is native to French Guiana and Brazil.


47.   Eragrostis sessilispica Buckley
Tumble Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-90 cm, erect or decumbent, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths hairy at the apices and on the collars, sometimes also on the distal portion of the margins, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.4-0.5 mm; blades 5-30 cm long, 1-3 mm wide, usually involute, sometimes flat, abaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, hairs to 5 mm, adaxial surfaces scabridulous. Panicles 20-65 cm long, 10-35 cm wide, ovate, open; primary branches 2-20(24) cm, widely spaced, diverging 20-100° from the rachises, not rebranched, naked basally; pulvini hairy; pedicels 0-12 mm, appressed, proximal spikelets on each branch sessile or subsessile, the pedicels shorter than 0.4 mm. Spikelets 5-13 mm long, 1.4-3 mm wide, oblong to oblanceolate, stramineous to reddish-purple, with 3-12 florets; disarticulation tardy, basipetal, in the rachilla below the florets, glumes persistent. Glumes lanceolate, broad basally, indurate; lower glumes 2.5-6 mm; upper glumes 3-6 mm, apices acuminate; lemmas 3-5 mm, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, indurate, apices acuminate; paleas 2.4-4.6 mm, indurate, gibbous basally but the sides not projecting beyond the lemmas, keels ciliolate, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.3-0.5 mm, reddish-brown. Caryopses 0.9-1.5 mm, ovoid to pyriform, laterally flattened, tapering distally, smooth to faintly striate, brownish. 2n = 40.

Eragrostis sessilispica grows in prairies, limestone mesas, partial forest openings, and grasslands, generally in sandy soils, at 0-1220 m, often in association with Prosopsis and Quercus. Its range extends into northern Mexico.


48.   Eragrostis airoides Nees

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms 30-110 cm, erect, glabrous below the nodes. Sheaths glabrous or pilose, hairs to 5 mm; ligules 0.1-0.2 mm; blades 8-22 mm long, (1)2-4(5) mm wide, flat to folded, glabrous abaxially, scabridulous adaxially. Panicles 18-70 cm long, 3-25 cm wide, diffuse, ovate; primary branches 4-20 cm, appressed or diverging 10-70° from the rachises, naked basally; pulvini glabrous; pedicels 2.4-11 mm, divergent. Spikelets 1.3-2 mm long, 0.8-1.8 mm wide, ovate to lanceolate, plumbeous, with 1-3 florets; disarticulation acropetal, in the rachilla below the florets, glumes deciduous; rachilla prolonged above the terminal floret. Glumes lanceolate to ovate, membranous; lower glumes 0.8-1 mm; upper glumes 1.1-1.4 mm; lemmas 0.8-1.2 mm, ovate, membranous, plumbeous, keels and lateral veins inconspicuous, apices obtuse; paleas 0.8-1.2 mm, membranous, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, apices obtuse; anthers 3, 0.3-0.5 mm, purplish. Caryopses 0.4-0.5 mm, ovoid, reticulate, reddish-brown. 2n = 36 (Davidse, pers. comm.).

Eragrostis airoides is a South American species that, in the Flora region, is known only from roadsides and disturbed sites in Brazos County, Texas. It is an enigmatic species, often treated as Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi) Hack., which it resembles in its chromosome base number of x = 9 and caryopsis morphology, but its frequent possession of spikelets with more than 1 floret and its mode of spikelet disarticulation argue for its retention in Eragrostis.


49.   Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud.
Thalia Lovegrass

Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations, without rhizomes, not glandular. Culms (60)75-130 cm, erect. Sheaths glabrous, apices hairy, hairs to 4 mm; ligules 0.1-0.3 mm; blades (5)8-20 cm long, (1)2-3(4) mm wide, flat to involute, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces mostly scabridulous, long ciliate basally. Panicles (7)10-20(28) cm long, (2.5)4-15 cm wide, ovate, open; primary branches (3)5-10(13) cm, diverging 20-60° from the rachises, wiry, somewhat capillary, naked basally; pulvini glabrous or sparingly hairy, hairs shorter than 2 mm; pedicels 1-10 mm, appressed, scabridulous. Spikelets 5-10(19) mm long, 1.4-2.4 mm wide, ovate-lanceolate, plumbeous to purplish, with 10-22 florets; disarticulation acropetal, glumes first, then the florets. Glumes subequal, lanceolate to ovate, membranous; lower glumes 1.2-1.4 mm, narrower than the upper glumes; upper glumes 1.4-1.7 mm; lemmas (1.5)1.7-2 mm, broadly ovate, leathery, keels scabridulous, lateral veins evident, apices acute; paleas 1.4-1.9 mm, hyaline, bases not projecting beyond the lemmas, keels scabridulous, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 3, 0.7-0.9 mm, reddish-purple. Caryopses 0.6-0.9 mm, obovoid to ellipsoid, terete, opaque, somewhat striate, reddish-brown. 2n = 60.

Eragrostis atrovirens is native to northern Africa, but it is now established in southeastern United States, where it grows along railways and roads, on beaches and in ditches, often in wet sandy soils and in association with Pinus, Taxodium, and Sabal.


EXCLUDED SPECIES

The following species have been reported from the Flora region, but no specimens supporting their presence, other than in experimental plots, have been found: Eragrostis acutiflora (Kunth) Nees, Eragrostis leptostachya (R. Br.) Steud., and Eragrostis suaveolens Becker ex Claus.